Wild Boar
Male Central European boar (S. s. scrofa)
Common Name Wild Pig and Razorback
Range Northern and Central Europe, the Mediterranean Region (including North Africa's Atlas Mountains) and much of Asia, including Japan and as far south as Indonesia
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Artiodactyla
Family Suidae
Genus Sus
Species S. scrofa
Conservation Status
Least Concern

Wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as wild pig or "Eurasian wild pig" ', is a species of the pig genus Sus, part of the biological family Suidae. The species includes many subspecies. It is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig, an animal with which it freely hybridises. Wild boar are native across much of Northern and Central Europe, the Mediterranean Region (including North Africa's Atlas Mountains) and much of Asia, including Japan and as far south as Indonesia. Populations have also been artificially introduced in some parts of the world, most notably the Americas and Australasia. Elsewhere, populations have also become established after escapes of wild boar from captivity.


Different subspecies can usually be distinguished by the relative lengths and shapes of their lacrimal bones. S. scrofa cristatus and S. scrofa vittatus have shorter lacrimal bones than European subspecies. Spanish and French boar specimens have 36 chromosomes, as opposed to wild boar in the rest of Europe which possess 38, the same number as domestic pigs. Boars with 36 chromosomes have successfully mated with animals possessing 38, resulting in fertile offspring with 37 chromosomes.

Western Races (Scrofa Group)

  • Common Wild Boar: The most common and most widespread subspecies, its original distribution ranges from France to European Russia. It has been introduced in Sweden, Norway, the US and Canada.
  • Iberian Wild Boar: A small subspecies present in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. Probably a junior synonym of S. s. meridionalis.
  • Castillian Wild Boar: A small, almost maneless subspecies from Corsica, Sardinia and Andalusia. Possibly extinct now in its island range.
  • Italian Wild Boar: A subspecies smaller than S. s. scrofa with a higher and wider skull. It occurs in central and southern Italy. Since the 1950s, it has hybridised extensively with introduced S. s. scrofa populations.
  • Sus scrofa attila: A very large, long-maned, yellowish subspecies from eastern Europe to Kazakhstan, northern Caucasus and Iran.
  • Barbary Wild Boar: Maghreb in Africa. Closely related to, and sometimes considered a junior synonym of, S. s. scrofa, but smaller and with proportionally longer tusks. Now quite rare.
  • Sus scrofa lybica: A small, pale and almost maneless subspecies from Caucasus to the Nile Delta, Turkey and the Balkans. Possibly extinct now.
  • Sus scrofa sennaarensis: From Egypt and northern Sudan. Former presence in these countries, where became extinct around 1900, is linked to ancient introductions by man, and S. s. sennaarensis is probably a junior synonym of S. s. scrofa. "Wild boars" now present in Sudan are derived from domestic pigs.
  • Sus scrofa nigripes: A light-coloured subspecies with dark legs from Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia.

Indian Races (Cristatus Group)

  • Indian Wild Boar: A long-maned subspecies with a coat that is brindled black unlike S. s. davidi. More lightly built than European boar. Its head is larger and more pointed than that of the European boar, and its ears smaller and more pointed. The plane of the forehead straight, while it is concave in the European. Occurs from the Himalayas south to central India and east to Indochina (north of the Kra Isthmus).
  • Sus scrofa affinis: This subspecies is smaller than S. s. cristatus and found in southern India and Sri Lanka. Validity questionable.
  • Sus scrofa davidi: A small, long-maned and light brown subspecies from eastern Iran to Gujarat; perhaps north to Tajikistan.

Eastern Races (Leucomystax Group)

  • Manchurian Wild Boar: A very large (largest subspecies of the wild boar), almost maneless subspecies with a thick coat that is blackish in the summer and yellowish-grey in the winter. From Manchuria and Korea.
  • Japanese Wild Boar: A small, almost maneless, yellowish-brown subspecies from Japan (except Hokkaido where the wild boar is not naturally present, and the Ryukyu Islands where replaced by S. s. riukiuanus).
  • Ryukyu Wild Boar: A small subspecies from the Ryukyu Islands.
  • Formosan Wild Boar: A small blackish subspecies from Taiwan.
  • Sus scrofa moupinensis: A relatively small and short-maned subspecies from most of China and Vietnam. There are significant variations within this subspecies, and it is possible there actually are several subspecies involved.[38] On the contrary, recent evidence suggests the virtually unknown Heude's pig may be identical to (and consequently a synonym of) wild boars from this region.
  • Siberian Wild Boar: A relatively small subspecies from Mongolia and Transbaikalia.
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