|Common Name||Mangarahara Cichlid|
|Range||Amboaboa and Mangarahara Rivers near Mandritsara in northern Madagascar.|
Ptychochromis insolitus (common name: Mangarahara cichlid) is a species of cichlid in the family Cichlidae. It is endemic to the Amboaboa and Mangarahara Rivers near Mandritsara in northern Madagascar. It is listed as Critically Endangered by the IUCN, but until its rediscovery in 2013, it was feared that the last remaining wild population had disappeared. This rare species is threatened by habitat loss and introduced species. Prior to its official description, it was sometimes known as Ptychochromis sp. nov. "Joba mena" or Ptychochromis sp. nov. "Mangarahara". Two cichlids from another genus, Paretroplus nourissati and Paretroplus gymnopreopercularis, and a round herring, Sauvagella robusta, are restricted to the same region as Ptychochromis insolitus. This species can reach a length of 5.5 centimetres (2.2 in) SL.
As of 2013, only three specimens were known to exist in captivity; two males in London Zoo and one male in the Berlin Aquarium. An appeal to collectors was put out in May 2013 to attempt to find a suitable female in a private collection for breeding purposes. The last known female was killed by a male at the Berlin Aquarium while trying to mate. In late 2013, a remnant population was discovered in the wild after a local tip-off, and 18, including some females, have been moved into captivity.