Dendrobatidae or poison dart frog (also known as dart-poison frog, poison frog or formerly known as poison arrow frog) is a family of frogs which are native to Central and South America. These species are diurnal and often have brightly colored bodies. Although all wild dendrobatids are at least somewhat toxic, levels of toxicity vary considerably from one species to the next and from one population to another. Many species are threatened. These amphibians are often called "dart frogs" due to the Amerindians' indigenous use of their toxic secretions to poison the tips of blowdarts. However, of over 175 species, only four have been documented as being used for this purpose (curare plants are more commonly used), all of which come from the Phyllobates genus, which is characterized by the relatively large size and high levels of toxicity of its members.
Dart frogs are the focus of major phylogenetic studies, and undergo taxonomic changes frequently. The family Dendrobatidae was revised taxonomically in 2006 and contains 13 genera, with about 170 species.
Subfamily: Colostethinae Ameerega (32 species) Colostethus (20 species) Epipedobates (7 species) Silverstoneia (8 species) Subfamily: Dendrobatinae Adelphobates (3 species) Andinobates (14 species) Dendrobates (5 species) Excidobates (3 species) Minyobates (Monotypic) Oophaga (9 species) Phyllobates (6 species) Ranitomeya (16 species) Subfamily: Hyloxalus Hyloxalus (59 species)