Animal Database

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Animal Database
Animal Database
Nectophrynoides viviparus
Common Name Morogoro Tree Toad
Range Tanzania
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Amphibia
Order Anura
Family Bufonidae
Genus Nectophrynoides
Species Nectophrynoides viviparus
Conservation Status

Nectophrynoides viviparus (common name: Morogoro tree toad) is a species of toad in the Bufonidae family. It is endemic to Tanzania. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, arable land, and rural gardens. It is threatened by habitat loss.


Nectophrynoides viviparus is a robust toad which reaches an adult length of 6 centimetres (2.4 in). The skin is smooth and has many small mucous glands. The paratoid glands are prominent just behind the eyes and nearby are circular tympani (eardrums). It also has large glands on its limbs which usually contrast in colour with the rest of the skin. The digits on the hands and feet are partially webbed. Some individuals are black with white markings, others are grey, green or dull red. In 2011, a new species of toad, Callulina meteora, was described from the mountains of Tanzania and has similarly large, contrastingly coloured glands on its limbs.

Distribution and Habitat[]

This species is known from the Uluguru Mountains and Udzungwa Mountains in eastern and southern Tanzania. It occurs in wooded areas, among bamboos and in grassland at the edges of forests at an altitude of between 1,350 and 2,500 metres (4,430 and 8,200 ft) above sea level.


Nectophrynoides viviparus is a terrestrial species and is ovoviviparous, which means that it does not require a body of water in which to reproduce. Fertilization is internal and the eggs develop through the larval stage inside the mother's oviduct, eventually emerging as fully formed juvenile toads.


Nectophrynoides viviparus is listed as "Vulnerable" in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. This is because it is found as several separate populations in an area of less than 20,000 square kilometres (7,700 sq mi). The main range is remote but there is some increase in agricultural activity in the area. It has been seen in maize fields but it is unclear to what extent it is able to adapt to deforestation. Although locally common, populations in general appear to be declining.