Bronx zoo ny 22-09-2011 macrocephalon maleo f-may st-catherine 30-10-2000 001s-201233
Range Indonesian island of Sulawesi.
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Aves
Order Galliformes
Family Megapodiidae
Genus Macrocephalon
Species Macrocephalon maleo
Conservation Status

The Maleo (Macrocephalon maleo), is a species of megapode and the only member of the monotypic genus Macrocephalon. The maleo is endemic to the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. It is found in the tropical lowland and hill forests, but nests in the open sandy areas, volcanic soils or beaches that are heated by the sun or geothermal energy for incubation.


The maleo is approximately 100 cm long (males show 1389–1588 g, while females 1503–1758 g) with blackish plumage, bare yellow facial skin, reddish-brown iris, reddish-orange beak and rosy salmon underparts. The crown is ornamented with a black helmet casque. The greyish blue feet have four long sharp claws, separated by a membranous web. The sexes are almost identical with a slightly smaller and duller female. On the other hand, juveniles has largely brownish and paler head with short blackish-brown crest and browner upperparts.

Behaviour and Ecology

The maleo's egg is large, about five times as large as that of the domestic chicken's. The female lays and covers each egg in a deep hole in the sand and allows the incubation to take place through solar or volcanic heating. After the eggs hatch, the young birds work their way up through the sand and hide in the forest. The young birds are able to fly and are totally independent. They must find food and defend themselves from predators such as monitor lizards, reticulated python, wild pig and cats.

The maleo is monogamous, and members of a pair stay close to each other all the time. Its diet consists mainly of fruits, seeds, mollusks, ants, termites, beetles and other small invertebrates.

Status and Conservation

Since 1972, this species has been protected by the Indonesian government. Due to ongoing habitat loss, limited range, high chick mortality rates and overhunting in some areas, the maleo is evaluated as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.

In 2009, US-based Wildlife Conservation Society worked with local government to purchase 36 acres (150,000 m2) of Indonesian beach front property where approximately 40 nests are located in an effort to further conservation efforts and protect this bird.

The Alliance for Tompotika Conservation works with communities in Sulawesi to educate locals about the maleo's endangered status and prevent the harvesting of eggs. The eggs are not a staple food source, but are a popular delicacy.

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