Animal Database

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Animal Database
Homo
182276-Smiling-mature-man-and-woman-standing-together
Human (Homo sapiens)
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Primates
Family Hominidae
Genus Homo

Homo or humans, is a genus of hominids that includes modern humans and species closely related to them. The genus is estimated to be about 2.3 to 2.4 million years old, possibly having evolved from australopithecine ancestors, with the appearance of Homo habilis. Several species, including Australopithecus garhi, Australopithecus sediba, Australopithecus africanus, and Australopithecus afarensis, have been proposed as the direct ancestor of the Homo lineage. These species have morphological features that align them with Homo, but there is no consensus on which gave rise to Homo, assuming it was not an, as yet, undiscovered species.

The most salient physiological development between the earlier australopith species and Homo is the increase in cranial capacity, from about 450 cm3 (27 cu in) in A. garhi to 600 cm3 (37 cu in) in H. habilis. Within the Homo genus, cranial capacity again doubled from Homo habilis through Homo ergaster to Homo heidelbergensis by 0.6 million years ago. The cranial capacity of Homo heidelbergensis overlaps with the range found in modern humans.

The advent of Homo was thought to coincide with the first evidence of stone tools (the Oldowan industry), and thus by definition with the beginning of the Lower Palaeolithic; however, recent evidence from Ethiopia now places the earliest evidence of stone tool usage at before 3.39 million years ago. The emergence of Homo coincides roughly with the onset of Quaternary glaciation, the beginning of the current ice age.

Homo sapiens (modern humans) is the only surviving species in the genus, all others having become extinct. Homo neanderthalensis, traditionally considered the last surviving relative, died out about 24,000 years ago, though recent discoveries suggest that another species, Homo floresiensis, may have lived much more recently. The other extant Homininae: the chimpanzees and gorillas have a limited geographic range. In contrast, the evolution of humans is a history of migrations and admixture. Humans repeatedly left Africa to populate Eurasia and finally the Americas, Oceania, and the rest of the world.

Naming[]

In biological sciences, particularly anthropology and palaeontology, the common name for all members of the genus Homo is "human".

The word homo is Latin meaning "human", and became to mean "man" in the gender-neutral sense in New Latin. The word "human" itself is from Latin humanus, an adjective cognate to homo, both thought to derive from a Proto-Indo-European word for "earth" reconstructed as dhǵhem.

The binomial name Homo sapiens is due to Carl Linnaeus (1758)

Names for other species were coined beginning in the second half of the 19th century (H. neanderthalensis 1864, H. erectus 1892). A couple of recently discovered, recently extinct, species in the Homo Genus do not have accepted binomial names yet, Denisova hominin, and Red Deer Cave people. Classification of the Homo Genus into species and subspecies is poorly defined, highly disputed, and subject to political correctness and incomplete information, leading to difficulties in binomial naming, and the use of common names such as Neanderthal and Denisovan even in scientific papers.

Species[]

Sub Species or Species Description Image
Homo Denisovans
Homo naledi
Homo antecessor
Homo cepranensis
Homo erectus
Homo erectus ergaster
Homo erectus erectus
Homo erectus georgicus
Homo erectus pekinensis
Homo erectus tautavelensis
Homo erectus bilzingslebenensis
Homo erectus lantianensis
Homo erectus nankinensis
Homo erectus soloensis
Homo erectus palaeojavanicus
Homo erectus yuanmouensis
Homo floresiensis
Homo gautengensis
Homo habilis
Homo erectus heidelbergensis
Homo luzonensis
Homo Neanderthalensis
Homo rhodesiensis
Homo rudolfensis
Homo tsaichangensis
Red Deer Cave People
Homo Sapiens Idaltu
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
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