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Animal Database
Giraffidae
Okapi
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Artiodactyla
Family Giraffidae

Giraffidae is a family from the Artiodactyla order.

Appearance[]

Giraffids share many common features with other ruminants. They have cloven hooves and cannon bones, much like bovids, and a complex, four-chambered stomach. They have no upper incisors or canines, replacing them with a tough, horny pad. There is an especially long diastema between the front and cheek teeth. The latter are selenodont, adapted for grinding up tough plant matter.

Genera[1][]

Family Giraffidae J.E.Gray, 1821

  • Basal extinct giraffids
    • Csakvarotherium Kretzoi, 1930
      • Csakvarotherium hungaricum Kretzoi, 1930
    • Injanatherium Heintz, Brunet & Sen, 1981
      • Injanatherium arabicum Morales, Soria & Thomas, 1987
      • Injanatherium hazimi Heintz, Brunet & Sen, 1981
    • Propalaeomeryx Lydekker, 1883 [Progiraffa Pilgrim, 1908]
      • Propalaeomeryx sivalensis Lydekker, 1883 [Progiraffa exigua Pilgrim, 1908]
    • Shansitherium Killgus, 1922 [Schansitherium [sic]]
      • Shansitherium quadricornis (Bohlin, 1926) [Palaeotragus quadricornis Bohlin, 1926]
      • Shansitherium tafeli Killgus, 1922
    • Umbrotherium Abbazzi, Delfino, Gallai, Trebini & Rook, 2008
      • Umbrotherium azzarolii Abbazzi, Delfino, Gallai, Trebini & Rook, 2008
  • Subfamily †Canthumerycinae Hamilton, 1978
    • Georgiomeryx Paraskevaidis, 1940
      • Georgiomeryx georgalasi Paraskevaidis, 1940
    • Canthumeryx Hamilton 1973 [Zarafa Hamilton, 1973]
      • Canthumeryx sirtensis Hamilton 1973 [Zarafa zelteni Hamilton, 1973]
  • Subfamily Giraffinae J.E.Gray, 1821
    • Tribe Giraffini J.E.Gray, 1821
      • Subtribe Giraffina J.E.Gray, 1821
        • Giraffa Brisson, 1762 [Camelopardalis von Schreber, 1784 and Orasius Oken, 1816]
          • Giraffa camelopardalis super-complex (Linnaeus, 1758)
            • Giraffa giraffa complex (von Schreber, 1784)
              • Giraffa angolensis Lydekker, 1903 – Angolan giraffe
              • Giraffa giraffa (von Schreber, 1784) – South African giraffe
            • Giraffa tippelskirchii complex Matschie, 1898
              • Giraffa thornicrofti Lydekker, 1911 – Rhodesian giraffe
              • Giraffa tippelskirchii Matschie, 1898 – Masai giraffe
            • Giraffa reticulata de Winton, 1899 – Reticulated giraffe
            • Giraffa camelopardalis complex (Linnaeus, 1758)
              • Giraffa peralta Thomas, 1898 – West African giraffe
              • Giraffa antiquorum Jardine & Swainson, 1835 – Kordofan giraffe
              • Giraffa camelopardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) – Northern giraffe
                • Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi Lydekker, 1903 – Rothschild's giraffe
                • Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) – Nubian giraffe
          • Giraffa jumae Leakey, 1967
          • Giraffa priscilla Pilgrim, 1911
          • Giraffa punjabiensis Pilgrim, 1911
          • Giraffa pygmaea Harris, 1976
          • Giraffa sivalensis (Falconer & Cautley, 1843) [Camelopardalis sivalensis Falconer & Cautley, 1843 and Camelopardalis affinis Falconer & Cautley, 1843]
          • Giraffa stillei (Dietrich, 1942) [Okapia stillei Dietrich, 1942 and Giraffa gracilis Arambourg, 1947]
      • Subtribe †Bohlinina Solounias, 2007
        • Bohlinia Matthew, 1929
          • Bohlinia adoumi Likius, Vignaud & Brunet, 2007
          • Bohlinia attica (Gaudry & Lartet, 1856) [Giraffa attica (Gaudry & Lartet, 1856) and Orasius attica (Gaudry & Lartet, 1856)]
          • Bohlinia nikitiae Kostopoulos, Koliadimou & Koufos, 1996
        • Honanotherium Bohlin, 1927
          • Honanotherium bernori Solounias & Danowitz, 2016
          • Honanotherium schlosseri (Pilgrim, 1911) [Giraffa schlosseri Pilgrim, 1911]
    • Tribe Palaeotragini Pilgrim, 1910
      • Subtribe †Palaeotragina Pilgrim, 1910
        • Giraffokeryx Pilgrim, 1910
          • Giraffokeryx anatoliensis Geraads & Aslan, 2003
          • Giraffokeryx primaevus (Churcher, 1970) [Palaeotragus primaevus Churcher, 1970; Samotherium africanum Churcher, 1970 and Amotherium africanum [sic]]
          • Giraffokeryx punjabiensis Pilgrim, 1910
        • Mitilanotherium
          • Mitilanotherium inexpectatum
        • Palaeogiraffa Bonis & Bouvrain, 2003
          • Palaeogiraffa macedoniae (Geraads, 1989) [Decennatherium macedoniae Geraads, 1989]
          • Palaeogiraffa major Bonis & Bouvrain, 2003
          • Palaeogiraffa pamiri (Ozansoy, 1965) [Samotherium pamiri Ozansoy, 1965]
        • Palaeotragus Gaudry, 1861 [Achtiaria Borissiak, 1914; Macedonitherium Sickenberg, 1967; Mitilanotherium Samson & Radulesco, 1966 and Sogdianotherium Sharapov, 1974]
          • Palaeotragus coelophrys (Rodler & Weithofer, 1890) [Alcicephalus coelophrys Rodler & Weithofer, 1890]
          • Palaeotragus germaini Arambourg, 1959
          • Palaeotragus inexspectatus (Samson & Radulesco, 1966) [Macedonitherium martinii Sickenberg, 1967; Mitilanotherium inexpectatum Samson & Radulesco, 1966; Mitilanotherium kuruksaense (Sharapov, 1974); Mitilanotherium martinii (Sickenberg, 1967); Palaeotragus priasovicus Godina & Bajgusheva, 1985 and Sogdianotherium kuruksaense Sharapov, 1974]
          • Palaeotragus lavocanti Heintz, 1976
          • Palaeotragus robinsoni Crusafont-Pairó, 1979
          • Palaeotragus rouenii Gaudry, 1861 [Palaeotragus microdon Koken, 1885]
          • Palaeotragus tungurensis Colbert, 1936
        • Samotherium Forsyth Major, 1888 [Alcicephalus Rodler & Weithofer, 1890; Chersenotherium Alexajew, 1916 and Amotherium [sic]]
          • Samotherium boissieri Forsyth Major, 1888
          • Samotherium eminens (Alexajew, 1916) [Chersenotherium eminens Alexajew, 1916]
          • Samotherium major Bohlin, 1926
          • Samotherium neumayri (Rodler & Weithofer, 1890) [Alcicephalus neumayri Rodler & Weithofer, 1890]
          • Samotherium sinense (Schlosser, 1903) [Alcicephalus sinense Schlosser, 1903]
      • Subtribe Okapiina Bohlin, 1926
        • Afrikanokeryx Harris, Solounias & Geraads, 2010
          • Afrikanokeryx leakeyi Harris, Solounias & Geraads, 2010
        • Okapia Lankester, 1901
  • †Subfamily Sivatheriinae Bonaparte, 1850
    • Birgerbohlinia Crusafont Pairó, 1952
      • Birgerbohlinia schaubi Crusafont Pairó, 1952
    • Bramatherium Falconer, 1845 [Hydaspitherium Lydekker, 1876]
      • Bramatherium giganteus Khan & Sarwar, 2002
      • Bramatherium grande (Lydekker, 1878) [Hydaspitherium grande Lydekker, 1878]
      • Bramatherium magnum (Pilgrim, 1910) [Hydaspitherium magnum Pilgrim, 1910]
      • Bramatherium megacephalum (Lydekker, 1876) [Hydaspitherium megacephalum Lydekker, 1876]
      • Bramatherium perimense Falconer, 1845
      • Bramatherium progressus Khan, Sarwar & Khan, 1993
      • Bramatherium suchovi Godina, 1977
    • Decennatherium Crusafont Pairó, 1952
      • Decennatherium rex Ríos, Sánchez & Morales, 2017
      • Decennatherium pachecoi Crusafont Pairó, 1952
    • Helladotherium Gaudry, 1860
      • Helladotherium duvernoyi (Gaudry & Lartet, 1856) [Camelopardalis duvernoyi Gaudry & Lartet, 1856]
    • Sivatherium Falconer & Cautley, 1836 [Griquatherium Haughton, 1922; Indratherium Pilgrim, 1910; Libytherium Pomel, 1892 and Orangiatherium van Hoepen, 1932]
      • Sivatherium giganteum Falconer & Cautley, 1836
      • Sivatherium hendeyi Harris, 1976
      • Sivatherium maurusium (Pomel, 1892) [Libytherium maurusium Pomel, 1892; Griquatherium cingulatum Haughton, 1922; Helladotherium olduvaiense Hopwood, 1934; Sivatherium olduvaiense (Hopwood, 1934); Libytherium olduvaiense Hopwood, 1934 and Orangiatherium vanrhyni van Hoepen, 1932]
    • Vishnutherium Lydekker, 1876
      • Vishnutherium iravadicum Lydekker 1876

Source[]

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