Luzon Bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba luzonica)
Gallicolumba or Pacific ground doves and bleeding-hearts, is a genus of mid-sized genus of ground-dwelling doves which occur in rainforests on the Philippines, Indonesia, and in the Pacific region. They are not closely related to the American ground doves (genus Columbina). Rather, the present genus is closest to the monotypic thick-billed ground dove genus Trugon.
The latter are named for their vivid-red patch on the breast, which looks startlingly like a bleeding wound in some species and has reminded naturalists of a dagger stab. The diet of doves of this genus consists of fruits and seed.
Systematics and Extinctions
Trugon and Gallicolumba might be ranked as a (very small) subfamily, but the available data suggests that they are better considered part of a quite basal radiation of Columbidae which consists of many small and often bizarre lineages (e.g. Goura and Otidiphaps which are ecologically convergent to Galliformes, and maybe even the famous didines (Raphinae). Currently not quite 20 species of Gallicolumba are extant. Of the larger genera of Columbidae, Gallicolumba is the one most affected by extinction. 3-4 species have disappeared since the 18th century, and most of the remaining are decreasing in numbers, threatened with extinction or have lost subspecies due to habitat destruction, invasive species, or overhunting. In addition, there are several species never studied alive but known from subfossil bones. These became extinct during the human settlement of the Southern Pacific region (c. 3000 BC - 1400).
The bones of Gallicolumba are distinct enough to usually recognize this genus with ease. Still, the evolutionary affiliation of extinct species is often uncertain. A considerable number of recognizably distinct now-extinct Polynesian taxa used to inhabit the area where the white-headed lineage (Gallicolumba jobiensis, Gallicolumba erythroptera) and the Melanesian expansion that brought about Gallicolumba sanctaecrucis and Gallicolumba stairi (and possibly Gallicolumba rubescens) would have met.
Mindanao Bleeding-heart (Pucheran, 1853) (Gallicolumba crinigera) †Basilan Bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba crinigera bartletti) Negros Bleeding-heart (Clarke, 1900) (Gallicolumba keayi) Luzon Bleeding-heart (Scopoli, 1786) (Gallicolumba luzonica) †Catanduanes Bleeding Heart (Gallicolumba luzonica rubiventris) Mindoro Bleeding-heart (Salvadori, 1891) (Gallicolumba platenae) Sulu Bleeding-heart (Bourns & Worcester, 1894) (Gallicolumba menagei) Ground-doves were removed from Gallicolumba (which was non-monophyletic) and reassigned to genus Alopecoenas: Palau Ground Dove (Hartlaub & Finsch, 1872) (Alopecoenas canifrons) Polynesian Ground Dove (Gmelin, 1789) (Alopecoenas erythroptera) †White-headed Polynesian Ground Dove (Alopecoenas erythroptera albicollis) (taxonomic status unresolved) †Tanna Ground Dove (Forster, 1844) (Alopecoenas ferruginea) Wetar Ground Dove (Schlegel, 1871) (Alopecoenas hoedtii) White-breasted Ground Dove (Meyer, 1875) (Alopecoenas jobiensis) †Vella Lavella Ground Dove (Alopecoenas jobiensis chalconota) White-fronted Ground Dove (Finsch, 1880) (Alopecoenas kubaryi) †Henderson Ground Dove (Worthy and Wragg, 2003) (Alopecoenas leonpascoi) (prehistoric) †New Caledonian Ground Dove (Balouet & Olson, 1989) (Alopecoenas longitarsus) (prehistoric) †Norfolk Ground Dove (Forshaw, 1801) (Alopecoenas norfolkensis) †Great Ground Dove (Steadman, 1992) (Alopecoenas nui) (prehistoric) Marquesan Ground Dove (Vieillot, 1818) (Alopecoenas rubescens) Cinnamon Ground Dove (Pucheran, 1853) (Alopecoenas rufigula) †Thick-billed Ground Dove (Ramsay, 1882) (Alopecoenas salamonis) Santa Cruz Ground Dove (Mayr, 1935) (Alopecoenas sanctaecrucis) †Rota Ground Dove (Gallicolumba sp.) (prehistoric) Tongan Ground Dove (Gray, 1856) (Alopecoenas stairi) Sulawesi Ground Dove (Bonaparte, 1855) (Alopecoenas tristigmata) White-throated Ground Dove (Temminck, 1823) (Alopecoenas xanthonura)