Black Francolin (Francolinus francolinus)
Francolins are birds that traditionally have been placed in the genus Francolinus, but now commonly are divided into multiple genera, although some of the major taxonomic listing sources have yet to divide them. The francolins' closest relatives are the junglefowl, long-billed partridge, Alectoris and Coturnix. Together this monophyletic clade may warrant family status as the Gallusinidae or in a sub-family Gallusininae. The pheasant Phasianinae and partridge Perdicinae families of the "Order of Phasianidae" have been established as paraphyletic.
When all are maintained in a single genus, it is the most diverse of the Galliformes, having by far the most members. Francolins are terrestrial (though not flightless) birds that feed on insects, vegetable matter and seeds. Most of the members have a hooked upper beak, well-suited for digging at the bases of grass tussocks and rootballs. They have wide tails with fourteen retrice feathers. Most species exhibit spurs on the tarsi.
Of the approximately 40 extant species, the natural range of five (comprising the genus Francolinus) are restricted to Asia, while the remaining genera are restricted to Africa. Several species have been introduced to other parts of the world, notably Hawaii.
Twelve of the species which occur in Africa are found in the subcontinental region of southern Africa; of these, seven occur in varying proportions within the political boundaries of Namibia. Six southern African francolins are considered endemic to the subcontinent, of which three are found in Namibia (the Hartlaub's, red-billed and Orange River francolins. The Cape spurfowl, endemic to the Cape Province of South Africa, occurs marginally in southern Namibia. A fossil francolin, Francolinus capeki, has been described from Late Pliocene deposits of Hungary; the contemporary fossil galliforms "Francolinus" minor and Francolinus subfrancolinus are now placed in Palaeocryptonyx.
Until the early 1990s, major authorities placed all francolins in the genus Francolinus. In 1992 it was suggested that this treatment was problematic, and the francolins should be split into four genera: Francolinus for the Asian species, and the African species divided into Peliperdix, Scleroptila and Pternistis. The crested francolin and Nahan's francolin were considered possibly quite distinct, but still maintained in Peliperdix and Pternistis respectively. Based on further evidence, the crested francolin was moved to the monotypic genus Dendroperdix in 1998, and the Nahan's francolin was moved to Ptilopachus in 2006. Though some still maintain all these in Francolinus, the split into multiple genera is becoming more widespread. When split, the English name "francolin" is generally restricted to the members of the genera Francolinus, Peliperdix, Dendroperdix and Scleroptila, while the name "spurfowl" is used for Pternistis ("spurfowl" is also used for Galloperdix of the Indian subcontinent). As the Nahan's "francolin" is related to the stone partridge rather than the true francolins and spurfowl, its name is sometimes modified to Nahan's partridge.
In addition to the major changes proposed at genus level, the species level taxonomy among several francolins/spurfowl is disputed. For example, the distribution of the Orange River francolin (F. (S.) levaillantoides) is highly disjunct, leading some authorities to split the northern taxa (from Kenya and northwards) into a separate species, the acacia/Archer's francolin (F. (S.) gutturalis, with subspecies lorti), while maintaining the southern taxa (from Angola and southwards) in the Orange River francolin. Most authorities treat the Elgon francolin (F. (S.) psilolaema elgonensis) as a subspecies of the moorland francolin, but others have suggested it is a species (F. (S.) elgonensis), a subspecies of the Shelley's francolin, or even a hybrid between the moorland and red-winged francolins.
Genus: Francolinus Black Francolin (Linnaeus, 1766) (Francolinus francolinus) Swamp Francolin (Temminck, 1815) (Francolinus gularis) Painted Francolin (Jardine & Selby, 1828) (Francolinus pictus) Chinese Francolin (Scopoli, 1786) (Francolinus pintadeanus) Grey Francolin (Gmelin, 1789) (Francolinus pondicerianus) Genus: Peliperdix White-throated Francolin (Hartlaub, 1854) (Peliperdix albogularis) Coqui Francolin (Smith, 1836) (Peliperdix coqui) Latham's Francolin (Hartlaub, 1854) (Peliperdix lathami) Schlegel's Francolin (Heuglin, 1863) (Peliperdix schlegelii) Genus: Dendroperdix Crested Francolin (Smith, 1836) (Dendroperdix sephaena) Genus: Scleroptila Grey-winged Francolin (Latham, 1790) (Scleroptila africanus) Finsch's Francolin (Barboza du Bocage, 1881) (Scleroptila finschi) Orange River Francolin (Rüppell, 1835) (Scleroptila gutturalis) Red-winged Francolin (Valenciennes, 1825) (Scleroptila levaillantii) Moorland Francolin (Gray, 1867) (Scleroptila psilolaemus) Shelley's Francolin (Ogilvie-Grant, 1891) (Scleroptila shelleyi) Ring-necked Francolin (Ogilvie-Grant, 1891) (Scleroptila streptophorus) Genus: Pternistis ("Spurfowl") Red-billed Spurfowl (Waterhouse, 1838) (Pternistis adspersus) Red-necked Spurfowl (Müller, 1766) (Pternistis afer) Ahanta Francolin (Temminck, 1851) (Pternistis ahantensis) Double-spurred Francolin (Linnaeus, 1766) (Pternistis bicalcaratus) Mount Cameroon Francolin (Alexander, 1909) (Pternistis camerunensis) Cape Spurfowl (Gmelin, 1789) (Pternistis capensis) Chestnut-naped Francolin (Salvadori, 1888) (Pternistis castaneicollis) Clapperton's Francolin (Children, 1826) (Pternistis clappertoni) Erckel's Francolin (Rüppell, 1835) (Pternistis erckelii) Grey-striped Francolin (Ogilvie-Grant, 1890) (Pternistis griseostriatus) Hartlaub's Spurfowl (Bocage, 1869) (Pternistis hartlaubi) Harwood's Francolin (Blundell & Lovat, 1899) (Pternistis harwoodi) Hildebrandt's Francolin (Cabanis, 1878) (Pternistis hildebrandti) Heuglin's Francolin (Heuglin, 1863) (Pternistis icterorhynchus) Jackson's Francolin (Ogilvie-Grant, 1891) (Pternistis jacksoni) Yellow-necked Spurfowl (Gray, 1867) (Pternistis leucoscepus) Natal Spurfowl (Smith, 1834) (Pternistis natalensis) Handsome Francolin (Reichenow, 1908) (Pternistis nobilis) Djibouti Francolin (Dorst & Jouanin, 1952) (Pternistis ochropectus) Grey-breasted Spurfowl (Reichenow, 1887) (Pternistis rufopictus) Scaly Francolin (Cassin, 1857) (Pternistis squamatus) Swainson's Spurfowl (Smith, 1836) (Pternistis swainsonii) Swierstra's Francolin (Roberts, 1929) (Pternistis swierstrai)