Banded Broadbill (Eurylaimus javanicus)
Eurylaimidae or broadbills, is a family of small passerines in the Eurylaimidae family (named after the type genus Eurylaimus). The Smithornis and Pseudocalyptomena species occur in sub-Saharan Africa; the rest extend from the eastern Himalayas to Indonesia and the Philippines. The family possibly also includes the sapayoa from the Neotropics and the asities from Madagascar, although many taxonomists now separate each of the three into distinct families.
Many of the broadbills are brightly coloured birds that present broad heads, large eyes and a hooked, flat and broad beak. They range from 13 to 28 centimetres in length, and live in the dense canopies of wet forests, allowing them to hide despite their brightly coloured plumage. The plumage of the juveniles eurylaimids are similar to those of the adults, differing in being duller and shorter-winged and shorter-tailed in some cases.
Behavior and Ecology
The broadbills are for the most part insectivorous and carnivorous. Prey taken include insects, spiders, centipedes and millipedes, as well as lizards and tree frogs. Prey is obtained by sallying from a perch to snatch it in flight, and gleaning the prey off leaves and branches while flying. Some species may take some fruit, but only the green broadbills of the genus Calyptomena and the Grauer's broadbill are primarily frugivores (which also take some insects as well).
Taxonomy and Systematics
The sapayoa was originally classified in the group Pipridae, according to at least one author, the genus more accurately now suggests its own family. The four species of asities, a family endemic to Madagascar, are sometimes included in the broadbills. It has been suggested that the group is not monophyletic.
Subfamily: Smithornithinae (typical African broadbills) Genus: Smithornis African Broadbill (Smith, 1840) (Smithornis capensis) Rufous-sided Broadbill (Gray, 1864) (Smithornis rufolateralis) Grey-headed Broadbill (Alexander, 1903) (Smithornis sharpei) Subfamily: Pseudocalyptomeninae Genus: Pseudocalyptomena Grauer's Broadbill (Rothschild, 1909) (Pseudocalyptomena graueri) Subfamily: Calyptomeninae (Asian green broadbills) Genus: Calyptomena Hose's Broadbill (Sharpe, 1892) (Calyptomena hosei) Green Broadbill (Raffles, 1822) (Calyptomena viridis) Whitehead's Broadbill (Sharpe, 1888) (Calyptomena whiteheadi) Subfamily: Eurylaiminae (typical Asian broadbills) Genus: Corydon Dusky Broadbill (Raffles, 1822) (Corydon sumatranus) Genus: Cymbirhynchus Black-and-red Broadbill (Gmelin, 1788) (Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos) Genus: Eurylaimus Banded Broadbill (Horsfield, 1821) (Eurylaimus javanicus) Black-and-yellow Broadbill (Raffles, 1822) (Eurylaimus ochromalus) Visayan Broadbill (Steere, 1890) (Eurylaimus samarensis) Wattled Broadbill (Sharpe, 1876) (Eurylaimus steerii) Genus: Psarisomus Long-tailed Broadbill (Jameson, 1835) (Psarisomus dalhousiae) Genus: Serilophus Silver-breasted Broadbill (Gould, 1834) (Serilophus lunatus)