Animal Database

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Animal Database
Animal Database
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Artiodactyla
Family Cervidae

Cervidae is a family from the Artiodactyla order.


Deer weights generally range from 30 to 300 kilograms (70 to 700 lb), though the smallest species, the Northern Pudú, averages 10 kilograms (20 lb) and the largest, the moose, averages 431 kilograms (1,000 lb). They generally have lithe, compact bodies and long, powerful legs suited for rugged woodland terrain. Deer are also excellent jumpers and swimmers. Deer are ruminants, or cud-chewers, and have a four-chambered stomach. The teeth of deer are adapted to feeding on vegetation, and like other ruminants, they lack upper incisors, instead having a tough pad at the front of their upper jaw.


Note that the terms indicate the origin of the groups, not their modern distribution: the water deer, for example, is a New World species but is found only in China and Korea. It is thought that the new world group originates from the forests of North America and Siberia, the old world deer in Asia.

Extant subfamilies, genera and species[]

The deer family has at least 90 species; The list is based on the studies of Randi, Mucci, Claro-Hergueta, Bonnet and Douzery (2001); Pitraa, Fickela, Meijaard, Groves (2004); Ludt, Schroeder, Rottmann and Kuehn (2004); Hernandez-Fernandez and Vrba (2005); Groves (2006); Ruiz-Garcia, M., Randi, E., Martinez-Aguero, M. and Alvarez D. (2007); Duarte, J.M.B., Gonzalez, S. and Maldonado, J.E. (2008); Groves and Grubb (2011) The family Cervidae is organized as follows:

Genus Elaphodus[]

  • Tufted Deer

Genus Muntiacus[]

  • Bornean Yellow Muntjac
  • Fea's Muntjac
  • Javan Muntjac
  • Indian Muntjac
  • Sri Lankan Muntjac
  • Black-legged Muntjac
  • Northern Red Muntjac
  • Roosevelt's Muntjac
  • Sumatran Muntjac
  • Gongshan Muntjac
  • Hairy-fronted Muntjac
  • Reeves's Muntjac
  • Giant Muntjac
  • Pu Hoat Muntjac
  • Leaf Muntjac
  • Annamite Muntjac

Tribe Cervini ("true" deer)[]

Genus Dama[]

  • Fallow Deer
  • Persian Fallow Deer

Genus Axis[]

  • Chital

Genus Rucervus[]

Genus Panolia[]

  • Manipur Eld's Deer
  • Eastern Eld's Deer
  • Thamin

Genus Elaphurus[]

Genus Hyelaphus[]

  • Indian Hog Deer
  • Indochinese Hog Deer
  • Calamian Deer
  • Bawean Deer

Genus Rusa[]

  • Visayan Spotted Deer
  • Philippine Deer
  • Mindoro Deer
  • Mindanao Mountain Deer
  • Javan Rusa
  • Southeast Asian Sambar
  • Indian Sambar

Genus Cervus[]

Genus Alces[]

Genus Capreolus[]

  • Roe Deer
  • Siberian Roe Deer

Genus Hydropotes[]

  • Water Deer

Genus Rangifer[]

  • Reindeer

Genus Hippocamelus[]

  • Taruca
  • South Andean Deer

Genus Mazama[]

Genus Blastocerus[]

  • Marsh Deer

Genus Ozotoceros[]

  • Pampas Deer

Genus Pudu[]

  • Northern Pudú
  • Southern Pudú

Genus Odocoileus[]

Extinct subfamilies, genera and species[]

The following is the classification of extinct cervids only, as well as including living lineages that have some species known from the fossil record or that have become extinct.

Genus †Dicrocerus[]

  • †Dicrocerus elegans
  • †Dicrocerus furcatus
  • †Dicrocerus necatus
  • †Dicrocerus teres
  • †Dicrocerus trilateralis

Genus †Euprox[]

  • †Euprox robustus
  • †Euprox dicranocerus
  • †Euprox fulcatus

Genus †Stephanocemas[]

  • †Stephanocemas colberti
  • †Stephanocemas colbert
  • †Stephanocemas thomsoni
  • †Stephanocemas elegantulus
  • †Stephanocemas chinghaiensis
  • †Stephanocemas triacuminatus

Genus †Paracervulus[]

  • †Paracervulus australis

In other media[]