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Cercopithecidae
1024px-Olive baboon Ngorongoro
Olive Baboon (Papio anubis)
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Primates
Family Cercopithecidae

Cercopithecidae or Old World monkeys, is a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade (or parvorder) of Catarrhini. The Old World monkeys are native to Africa and Asia today, inhabiting a range of environments from tropical rain forest to savanna, shrubland and mountainous terrain, and are also known from Europe in the fossil record. However, a (possibly introduced) free-roaming group of monkeys still survives in Gibraltar (Europe) to this day. Old World monkeys include many of the most familiar species of nonhuman primates, such as baboons and macaques.

Characteristics

Old World monkeys are medium to large in size, and range from arboreal forms, such as the colobus monkeys, to fully terrestrial forms, such as the baboons. The smallest is the talapoin, with a head and body 34–37 cm in length, and weighing between 0.7 and 1.3 kilograms, while the largest is the male mandrill (the females of the species being significantly smaller), at around 70 cm in length, and weighing up to 50 kilograms.

By superficial appearance, Old World monkeys are unlike apes in that most have tails (the family name means "tailed ape"), and unlike the New World monkeys (platyrrhines) in that their tails are never prehensile. Technically, the distinction of catarrhines from platyrrhines depends on the structure of the nose, and the distinction of Old World monkeys from apes depends on dentition (the number of teeth is the same in both, but they are shaped differently). In platyrrhines, the nostrils face sideways, whilst in catarrhines, they face downwards.

Several Old World monkeys have anatomical oddities. The colobus monkeys have stubs for thumbs to assist with their arboreal movement; the proboscis monkey has an extraordinary nose, while the snub-nosed monkeys have almost no nose at all; the penis of the male mandrill is colored red and the scrotum has a lilac color, while the face also has bright coloration like the genitalia, and this develops in only the dominant male of a multiple-male group.

Most Old World monkeys are at least partially omnivorous, but all prefer plant matter, which forms the bulk of their diet. Leaf monkeys are the most vegetarian, subsisting primarily on leaves, and eating only a small number of insects, while the other species are highly opportunistic, primarily eating fruit, but also consuming almost any food items available, such as flowers, leaves, bulbs and rhizomes, insects, snails, and even small vertebrates. The Barbary macaque's diet consists mostly of leaves and roots though it will also eat insects and uses cedar trees as a water source.

Classification

Two subfamilies are recognized, the Cercopithecinae, which are mainly African, but include the diverse genus of macaques, which are Asian and North African, and the Colobinae, which includes most of the Asian genera, but also the African colobus monkeys.

Superfamily Cercopithecoidea
 Family Cercopithecidae
  Subfamily Cercopithecinae
   Tribe Cercopithecini
    Genus Allenopithecus
     Allen's Swamp Monkey (Pocock, 1907) (Allenopithecus nigroviridis)
    Genus Miopithecus
     Angolan Talapoin (Schreber, 1774) (Miopithecus talapoin)
     Gabon Talapoin (Kingdon, 1997) (Miopithecus ogouensis)
    Genus Erythrocebus
     Patas Monkey (Schreber, 1775) (Erythrocebus patas)
    Genus Chlorocebus
     Green Monkey (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chlorocebus sabaeus)
     Grivet (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chlorocebus aethiops)
     Bale Mountains Vervet (Neumann, 1902) (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis)
     Tantalus Monkey (Ogilby, 1841) (Chlorocebus tantalus)
      Chlorocebus tantalus tantalus
      Chlorocebus tantalus budgetti
      Chlorocebus tantalus marrensis
     Vervet Monkey (F. Cuvier, 1821) (Chlorocebus pygerythrus)
     Malbrouck (Scopoli, 1786) (Chlorocebus cynosuros)
    Genus Cercopithecus
     Dryas Monkey (Schwarz, 1932) (Cercopithecus dryas)
     Diana Monkey (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cercopithecus diana)
     Roloway Monkey (Schreber, 1774) (Cercopithecus roloway)
     Greater Spot-nosed Monkey (Linnaeus, 1766) (Cercopithecus nictitans)
      Cercopithecus nictitans nictitans
      Bioko Putty-nosed Guenon (Cercopithecus nictitans martini)
     Blue Monkey (Wolf, 1822) (Cercopithecus mitis)
      Pluto Monkey (Cercopithecus mitis mitis)
     Silver Monkey (Lorenz, 1913) (Cercopithecus doggetti)
     Golden Monkey (Matschie, 1905) (Cercopithecus kandti)
     Sykes' Monkey (Sykes, 1831) (Cercopithecus albogularis)
      Zanzibar Sykes' Monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis albogularis)
      Pousargues' Sykes' Monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis albotorquatus)
      Cercopithecus albogularis erythrarchus
      Cercopithecus albogularis francescae
      Cercopithecus albogularis kibonotensis
      Cercopithecus albogularis kolbi
      White-lipped Monkey (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus)
      Cercopithecus albogularis moloneyi
      Cercopithecus albogularis monoides
      Cercopithecus albogularis phylax
      Cercopithecus albogularis schwarzi
      Zammarano's White-throated Guenon (Cercopithecus albogularis zammaranoi)
     Mona Monkey (Schreber, 1774) (Cercopithecus mona)
     Campbell's Mona Monkey (Waterhouse, 1838) (Cercopithecus campbelli)
     Lowe's Mona Monkey (Thomas, 1923) (Cercopithecus lowei)
     Crested Mona Monkey (Bennett, 1833) (Cercopithecus pogonias)
      Cercopithecus pogonias pogonias
      Cercopithecus pogonias nigripes
      Cercopithecus pogonias grayi
      Cercopithecus pogonias schwarzianus
     Wolf's Mona Monkey (Meyer, 1891) (Cercopithecus wolfi)
      Cercopithecus wolfi wolfi
      Cercopithecus wolfi elegans
     Dent's Mona Monkey (Matschie, 1912) (Cercopithecus denti)
     Lesser Spot-nosed Monkey (Schreber, 1774) (Cercopithecus petaurista)
      Cercopithecus petaurista petaurista
      Cercopithecus petaurista buettikoferi
     White-throated Guenon (Gray, 1866) (Cercopithecus erythrogaster)
     Sclater's Guenon (Pocock, 1904) (Cercopithecus sclateri)
     Red-eared Guenon (Waterhouse, 1838) (Cercopithecus erythrotis)
      Bioko Red-eared Guenon (Cercopithecus erythrotis erythrotis)
      Cercopithecus erythrotis camerunensis
     Moustached Guenon (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cercopithecus cephus)
      Cercopithecus cephus cephus
      Cercopithecus cephus cephodes
      Ngotto Guenon (Cercopithecus cephus ngottoensis)
     Red-tailed Monkey (Audebert, 1799) (Cercopithecus ascanius)
      Cercopithecus ascanius ascanius
      Cercopithecus ascanius atrinasus
      Cercopithecus ascanius whitesidei
      Cercopithecus ascanius katangae
      Schmidt's Guenon (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti)
     L'Hoest's Monkey (P. Sclater, 1899) (Cercopithecus lhoesti)
     Preuss's Monkey (Matschie, 1898) (Cercopithecus preussi)
     Sun-tailed Monkey (M. J. S. Harrison, 1988) (Cercopithecus solatus)
     Hamlyn's Monkey (Pocock, 1907) (Cercopithecus hamlyni)
      Owl-faced Guenon (Cercopithecus hamlyni hamlyni)
      Kahuzi Owl-faced Guenon (Cercopithecus hamlyni kahuziensis)
     Lesula (Hart et al., 2012) (Cercopithecus lomamiensis)
     De Brazza's Monkey (Schlegel, 1876) (Cercopithecus neglectus)
   Tribe Papionini
    Genus Macaca
     Barbary Macaque (Linnaeus, 1758) (Macaca sylvanus)
     Lion-tailed Macaque (Linnaeus, 1758) (Macaca silenus)
     Southern Pig-tailed Macaque (Linnaeus, 1766) (Macaca nemestrina)
     Northern Pig-tailed Macaque (Blyth, 1863) (Macaca leonina)
     Pagai Island Macaque (Miller, 1903) (Macaca pagensis)
     Siberut Macaque (Fuentes & Olson, 1995) (Macaca siberu)
     Moor Macaque (H.R. Schinz, 1825) (Macaca maura)
     Booted Macaque (Ogilby, 1841) (Macaca ochreata)
     Tonkean Macaque (Meyer, 1899) (Macaca tonkeana)
     Heck's Macaque (Matschie, 1901) (Macaca hecki)
     Gorontalo Macaque (Temminck, 1849) (Macaca nigrescens)
     Celebes Crested Macaque (Desmarest, 1822) (Macaca nigra)
     Crab-eating Macaque (Raffles, 1821) (Macaca fascicularis)
     Stump-tailed Macaque (I. Geoffroy, 1831, 1831) (Macaca arctoides)
     Rhesus Macaque (Zimmermann, 1780) (Macaca mulatta)
     Formosan Rock Macaque (Swinhoe, 1862) (Macaca cyclopis)
     Japanese Macaque (Blyth, 1875) (Macaca fuscata)
      Macaca fuscata fuscata
     Yakushima Macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui)
     Toque Macaque (Linnaeus, 1771) (Macaca sinica)
     Bonnet Macaque (É. Geoffroy, 1812) (Macaca radiata)
     Assam Macaque (McClelland, 1840) (Macaca assamensis)
     Tibetan Macaque (Milne-Edwards, 1870) (Macaca thibetana)
     Arunachal Macaque (Sinha et al., 2005) (Macaca munzala)
    Genus Lophocebus
     Grey-cheeked Mangabey (Gray, 1850) (Lophocebus albigena)
     Black Crested Mangabey (Oudemans, 1890) (Lophocebus aterrimus)
     Opdenbosch's Mangabey (Scouteden, 1944) (Lophocebus opdenboschi)
     Uganda Mangabey (Matschie, 1912) (Lophocebus ugandae)
     Johnston's Mangabey (Lydekker, 1900) (Lophocebus johnstoni)
     Osman Hill's Mangabey (Groves, 1978) (Lophocebus osmani)
    Genus Rungwecebus
     Kipunji (Jones et al., 2005) (Rungwecebus kipunji)
    Genus Papio
     Hamadryas Baboon (Linnaeus, 1758) (Papio hamadryas)
     Guinea Baboon (Desmarest, 1820) (Papio papio)
     Olive Baboon (Lesson, 1827) (Papio anubis)
     Yellow Baboon (Linnaeus, 1766) (Papio cynocephalus)
      Central Yellow Baboon (Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus)
      Ibean Baboon (Papio cynocephalus ibeanus)
      Kinda Baboon (Papio cynocephalus kindae)
     Chacma Baboon (Kerr, 1792) (Papio ursinus)
      Cape Chacma (Papio ursinus ursinus)
      Gray-footed Chacma (Papio ursinus griseipes)
      Ruacana Chacma (Papio ursinus raucana)
    Genus Theropithecus
     Gelada (Rüppell, 1835) (Theropithecus gelada)
    Genus Cercocebus
     Sooty Mangabey (Audebert, 1797) (Cercocebus atys)
     Collared Mangabey (Kerr, 1792) (Cercocebus torquatus)
     Agile Mangabey (Milne-Edwards, 1886) (Cercocebus agilis)
     Golden-bellied Mangabey (Lydekker, 1900) (Cercocebus chrysogaster)
     Tana River Mangabey (Peters, 1879) (Cercocebus galeritus)
     Sanje Mangabey (Mittermeier, 1986) (Cercocebus sanjei)
    Genus Mandrillus
     Mandrill (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mandrillus sphinx)
     Drill (F. Cuvier, 1807) (Mandrillus leucophaeus)
      Mainland Drill (F. Cuvier, 1807) (Mandrillus leucophaeus leucophaeus) (Mandrillus leucophaeus leucophaeus)
      Bioko Drill (Zukowsky, 1922) (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis)
     Subfamily Colobinae
      African group
       Genus Colobus
        Black Colobus (Waterhouse, 1838) (Colobus satanas)
         Gabon Black Colobus (Colobus satanas anthracinus)
         Bioko Black Colobus (Colobus satanas satanas)
        Angola Colobus (P. Sclater, 1860) (Colobus angolensis)
         Sclater's Angola Colobus (Colobus angolensis angolensis)
         Powell-Cotton’s Angola Colobus (Colobus angolensis cottoni)
         Adolf Friedrichs’s Angola Colobus (Colobus angolensis ruwenzorii)
         Cordier’s Angola Colobus (Colobus angolensis cordieri)
         Prigogine's Angola Colobus (Colobus angolensis prigoginei)
         Peters's Angola Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus)
        King Colobus (Zimmermann, 1780) (Colobus polykomos)
        Ursine Colobus (I. Geoffroy, 1834) (Colobus vellerosus)
        Mantled Guereza (Rüppell, 1835) (Colobus guereza)
       Genus Piliocolobus
        Western Red Colobus (Kerr, 1792) (Procolobus badius)
        Pennant's Red Colobus (Waterhouse, 1838) (Procolobus pennantii)
        Preuss's Red Colobus (Matschie, 1900) (Procolobus preussi)
        Thollon's Red Colobus (Milne-Edwards) (Procolobus tholloni)
        Central African Red Colobus (de Pousargues, 1899) (Procolobus foai)
        Ugandan Red Colobus (Elliot, 1907) (Procolobus tephrosceles)
        Udzungwa Red Colobus (Matschie, 1900) (Procolobus gordonorum)
        Zanzibar Red Colobus (Gray, 1868) (Procolobus kirkii)
        Tana River Red Colobus (Peters, 1879) (Procolobus rufomitratus)
        Niger Delta Red Colobus (Grubb and Powell, 1999) (Procolobus epieni)
        Olive Colobus (van Beneden, 1838) (Procolobus verus)
      Langur (leaf monkey) group
       Genus Semnopithecus
        Nepal Gray Langur (Hodgson, 1840) (Semnopithecus schistaceus)
        Kashmir Gray Langur (Pocock, 1928) (Semnopithecus ajax)
        Tarai Gray Langur (Pocock, 1928) (Semnopithecus hector)
        Northern Plains Gray Langur (Dufresne, 1797) (Semnopithecus entellus)
        Black-footed Gray Langur (Blyth, 1841) (Semnopithecus hypoleucos)
        Southern Plains Gray Langur (I. Geoffroy, 1843) (Semnopithecus dussumieri)
        Tufted Gray Langur (Blyth, 1844) (Semnopithecus priam)
       Genus Trachypithecus
        Trachypithecus vetulus group
         Purple-faced Langur (Erxleben, 1777) (Trachypithecus vetulus)
         Nilgiri Langur (J. Fischer, 1829) (Trachypithecus johnii)
        Trachypithecus cristatus group
         Javan Lutung (É. Geoffroy, 1812) (Trachypithecus auratus)
         Silvery Lutung (Raffles, 1821) (Trachypithecus cristatus)
         Indochinese Lutung (Milne-Edwards, 1876) (Trachypithecus germaini)
         Tenasserim Lutung (Blyth, 1847) (Trachypithecus barbei)
        Trachypithecus obscurus group
         Dusky Leaf Monkey (Reid, 1837) (Trachypithecus obscurus)
         Phayre's Leaf Monkey (Blyth, 1847) (Trachypithecus phayrei)
        Trachypithecus pileatus group
         Capped Langur (Blyth, 1843) (Trachypithecus pileatus)
         Shortridge's Langur (Wroughton, 1915) (Trachypithecus shortridgei)
         Gee's Golden Langur (Khajuria, 1956) (Trachypithecus geei)
        Trachypithecus francoisi group
         François' Langur (de Pousargues, 1898) (Trachypithecus francoisi)
         Hatinh Langur (Dao, 1970) (Trachypithecus hatinhensis)
         White-headed Langur (Trouessart, 1911) (Trachypithecus poliocephalus)
         Laotian Langur (Thomas, 1911) (Trachypithecus laotum)
         Delacour's Langur (Osgood, 1911) (Trachypithecus delacouri)
         Indochinese Black Langur (Brandon-Jones, 1995) (Trachypithecus ebenus)
       Genus Presbytis
        Sumatran Surili (Raffles, 1821) (Presbytis melalophos)
      Odd-nosed group
       Genus Pygathrix
        Red-shanked Douc (Linnaeus, 1771) (Pygathrix nemaeus)
        Black-shanked Douc (Milne-Edwards, 1871) (Pygathrix nigripes)
        Gray-shanked Douc (Nadler, 1997) (Pygathrix cinerea)
       Genus Rhinopithecus
        Golden Snub-nosed Monkey (Milne-Edwards, 1870) (Rhinopithecus roxellana)
         Moupin Golden Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana roxellana)
         Qinling Golden Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana qinlingensis)
         Hubei Golden Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana hubeiensis)
        Black Snub-nosed Monkey (Milne-Edwards, 1897) (Rhinopithecus bieti)
        Gray Snub-nosed Monkey (Thomas, 1903) (Rhinopithecus brelichi)
        Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey (Dollman, 1912) (Rhinopithecus avunculus)
        Myanmar Snub-nosed Monkey (Geissmann et al., 2010) (Rhinopithecus strykeri)
       Genus Nasalis
        Proboscis Monkey (Wurmb, 1787) (Nasalis larvatus)
       Genus Simias
        Pig-tailed Langur (Miller, 1903) (Simias concolor)
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