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Canidae
Gray Wolf Howl
A Gray Wolf Howling
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Carnivora
Family Canidae

Canidae is a family from the Carnivora order. It's including 35 extanct species.


Characteristics

Wild canids are found on every continent except Antarctica, and inhabit a wide range of different habitats, including deserts, mountains, forests, and grasslands. They vary in size from the fennec fox at 24 cm (9.4 in) long, to the gray wolf, which may be up to 2 m (6.6 ft) long, and can weigh up to 80 kg (180 lb).With the exceptions of the bush dog, raccoon dog, and some domestic breeds of Canis lupus, canids have relatively long legs and lithe bodies, adapted for chasing prey. All canids are digitigrade, meaning they walk on their toes. They possess bushy tails, nonretractile claws, and, excepting the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus), a dewclaw on the front feet. They possess a baculum that, together with a cavernous body, helps to create a copulatory tie during mating, locking the animals together for up to an hour. Young canids are born blind, with their eyes opening a few weeks after birth. All living canids (Caninae) have a ligament analogous to the nuchal ligament of ungulates used to maintain the posture of the head and neck with little active muscle exertion; this ligament allows them to conserve energy while running long distances following scent trails with their nose to the ground. However, based on skeletal details of the neck, at least some Borophaginae (such as Aelurodon) are believed to have lacked this ligament.Most canids have 42 teeth. As in other members of Carnivora, the upper fourth premolar and lower first molar are adapted as carnassial teeth for slicing flesh. The molar teeth are strong in most species, allowing the animals to crack open bone to reach the marrow.

Species and Taxonomy

Family Canidae (Extant and recently extinct species)

Subfamily Caninae

Tribe Canini

Genus Canis
 Gray Wolf, Canis Lupus 
 Domestic Dog, Canis lupus familiaris
 Dingo, Canis lupus dingo 
 Eurasian Wolf, Canis lupus lupus
 Tundra Wolf, Canis lupus albus
 †Kenai Peninsula Wolf, Canis lupus alces
 Arabian Wolf, Canis lupus arabs
 Arctic Wolf, Canis lupus arctos
 Mexican Wolf, Canis lupus baileyi
 †Newfoundland Wolf, Canis lupus beothucus
 †Bernard's Wolf, Canis lupus bernardi
 Steppe Wolf, Canis lupus campestris
 Tibetan Wolf, Canis lupus chanco
 †British Columbia Wolf, Canis lupus columbianus
 Vancouver Island Wolf, Canis lupus crassodon
 †Florida Black Wolf, Canis lupus floridanus
 †Cascade Mountain Wolf, Canis lupus fuscus
 †Gregory's Wolf, Canis lupus gregoryi
 †Manitoba Wolf, Canis lupus griseoalbus
 †Hokkaidō Wolf, Canis lupus hattai
 †Honshū Wolf, Canis lupus hodophilax
 Hudson Bay Wolf, Canis lupus hudsonicus
 Northern Rocky Mountains Wolf, Canis lupus irremotus
 Labrador Wolf, Canis lupus labradorius
 Alexander Archipelago Wolf, Canis lupus ligoni
 Eastern Wolf, Canis lupus lycaon
 Mackenzie River Wolf, Canis lupus mackenzii
 Baffin Island Wolf, Canis lupus manningi
 †Mogollon Mountain Wolf, Canis lupus mogollonensis
 †Texas Wolf, Canis lupus monstrabilis
 Buffalo Wolf, Canis lupus nubilus
 Mackenzie Valley Wolf, Canis lupus occidentalis
 Greenland Wolf, Canis lupus orion
 Indian Wolf, Canis lupus pallipes
 Yukon Wolf, Canis lupus pambasileus
 Red Wolf, Canis lupus rufus
 Alaskan Tundra Wolf, Canis lupus tundrarum
 †Southern Rocky Mountains Wolf, Canis lupus youngi
 Italian Wolf, Canis lupus italicus
 Iberian Wolf, Canis lupus signatus 
 Coyote, Canis latrans
 Ethiopian Wolf, Canis simensis 
 Golden Jackal, Canis aureus
 Side-striped Jackal, Canis adustus
 Black-backed Jackal, Canis mesomelas
 †Canis adoxus
 †Canis ameghinoi
 Canis apolloniensis †
 Canis armbrusteri †
 Canis arnensis †
 Canis cautleyi †
 Canis cedazoensis †
 Canis dirus (Dire wolf) †
 Canis donnezani †
 Canis edwardii †
 Canis (Eucyon) cipio †
 Canis etruscus †
 Canis ferox †
 Canis gezi †
 Canis lepophagus †
 Canis michauxi †
 Canis mosbachensis †
 Canis nehringi †
Genus Cuon
 Dhole, Cuon alpinus or Canis alpinus
Genus Lycaon
 African wild dog, Lycaon pictus 
Genus Atelocynus
 Short-eared dog, Atelocynus microtis
Genus Cerdocyon
 Crab-eating fox, Cerdocyon thous
Genus Dusicyon †
 Falklands wolf, Dusicyon australis †
Genus Lycalopex 
 Culpeo, Lycalopex culpaeus
 Darwin's fox, Lycalopex fulvipes
 South American gray fox, Lycalopex griseus
 Pampas fox, Lycalopex gymnocercus
 Sechura fox, Lycalopex sechurae
 Hoary fox, Lycalopex vetulus
Genus Chrysocyon
 Maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus
Genus Speothos
 Bush dog, Speothos venaticus

Tribe Vulpini

Genus Vulpes
 Arctic Fox, Vulpes lagopus
 Red fox, Vulpes vulpes 
 Swift Fox, Vulpes velox
 Kit Fox, Vulpes macrotis
 Corsac Fox, Vulpes corsac
 Cape Fox, Vulpes chama
 Pale fox, Vulpes pallida
 Bengal Fox, Vulpes bengalensis
 Tibetan Sand Fox, Vulpes ferrilata
 Blanford's fox, Vulpes cana
 Rüppell's Fox, Vulpes rueppelli
 Fennec Fox, Vulpes zerda
 Vulpes alopecoides †
 Vulpes cf. alopecoides †
 Vulpes cf. vulpes †
 Vulpes galaticus †
 Vulpes riffautae †
Genus Urocyon 
 Gray Fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus
 Island fox, Urocyon littoralis
 Cozumel fox, Urocyon sp.

Basal Caninae

Genus Otocyon
 Bat-eared Fox, Otocyon megalotis
Genus Nyctereutes
 Raccoon Dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides

Extinct Genera

Genus Cynotherium †
 Sardinian dhole, Cynotherium sardous †
Genus Theriodictis †
 Theriodictis platensis †
 Theriodictis tarijensis †
 Theriodictis (Canis) proplatensis † 
Genus Protocyon †
 Protocyon orcesi †
 Protocyon scagliarum †
 Protocyon troglodytes †
Genus Dusicyon †
 Dusicyon avus †
Genus Cerdocyon
 Cerdocyon avius †
 Cerdocyon ensenadensis †
Genus Speothos
 Speothos pacivorus †
Genus Nurocyon †
 Nurocyon chonokhariensis †
Genus Xenocyon †
 Xenocyon falconeri †
 Xenocyon lycaonoides †

Basal Caninae

Genus Nyctereutes 
 Nyctereutes cf. donnezani †  
 Nyctereutes cf. megamastoides †
 Nyctereutes donnezani †
 Nyctereutes megamostoides †
 Nyctereutes sinensis †
Genus Eucyon †
 Eucyon davisi †
 Eucyon minor †
 Eucyon zhoui †
 Eucyon monticinensis †
 Eucyon odessanus †
Genus Leptocyon †
 Leptocyon vafer †
 Leptocyon vulpinus †

Subfamily Borophaginae †

  Genus Archaeocyon †
   Archaeocyon falkenbachi †
   Archaeocyon leptodus †
   Archaeocyon pavidus †
  Genus Otarocyon †
   Otarocyon cooki †
   Otarocyon macdonaldi †
  Genus Oxetocyon †
   Oxetocyon cuspidatus †
  Genus Rhizocyon 
   Rhizocyon oregonensis 
Tribe Phlaocyonini †
  Genus Cynarctoides †
   Cynarctoides acridens †
   Cynarctoides emryi †
   Cynarctoides gawnae †
   Cynarctoides harlowi †
   Cynarctoides lemur †
   Cynarctoides luskensis †
   Cynarctoides roii †
  Genus Phlaocyon 
   Phlaocyon achoros
   Phlaocyon annectens 
   Phlaocyon latidens 
   Phlaocyon leucosteus 
   Phlaocyon mariae
   Phlaocyon marslandensis 
   Phlaocyon minor 
   Phlaocyon multicuspus
   Phlaocyon taylori
   Phlaocyon yakolai 
Tribe Borophagini †
  Genus Cormocyon †
   Cormocyon copei †
   Cormocyon haydeni †
  Genus Desmocyon †
   Desmocyon matthewi †
   Desmocyon thompsoni †
  Genus Metatomarctus †
   Metatomarctus canavus †
  Genus Eulopocyon 
   Eulopocyon brachygnathus 
   Eulopocyon spissidens 
  Genus Psalidocyon 
   Psalidocyon marianae 
  Genus Microtomarctus  †
   Microtomarctus conferta  †
  Genus Protomarctus
   Protomarctus optatus 
  Genus Tephrocyon 
   Tephrocyon rurestris 
 Subtribe Cynarctina †
  Genus Paracynarctus †
   Paracynarctus kelloggi †
   Paracynarctus sinclairi †
  Genus Cynarctus †
   Cynarctus crucidens †
   Cynarctus galushai †
   Cynarctus marylandica †
   Cynarctus saxatilis †
   Cynarctus voorhiesi †
 Subtribe Aelurodontina †
  Genus Tomarctus †
   Tomarctus brevirostris †
   Tomarctus hippophaga †
  Genus Aelurodon †
   Aelurodon asthenostylus †
   Aelurodon ferox †
   Aelurodon mcgrewi †
   Aelurodon montanensis †
   Aelurodon stirtoni †
   Aelurodon taxoides †
 Subtribe Borophagina †
  Genus Paratomarctus †
   Paratomarctus euthos  
   Paratomarctus temerarius
  Genus Carpocyon †
   Carpocyon compressus †
   Carpocyon limosus †
   Carpocyon robustus †   
   Carpocyon webbi †
  Genus Protepicyon
   Protepicyon raki
  Genus Epicyon †
   Epicyon aelurodontoides †
   Epicyon haydeni †
   Epicyon saevus †
  Genus Borophagus †
   Borophagus diversidens †
   Borophagus dudleyi †
   Borophagus hilli †
   Borophagus littoralis †
   Borophagus orc †
   Borophagus parvus †
   Borophagus pugnator †
   Borophagus secundus †

Subfamily Hesperocyoninae †

 Genus Cynodesmus 
  Cynodesmus martini 
  Cynodesmus thooides
 Genus Caedocyon
  Caedocyon tedfordi
 Genus Ectopocynus 
  Ectopocynus antiquus
  Ectopocynus intermedius 
  Ectopocynus siplicidens 
 Genus Enhydrocyon 
  Enhydrocyon basilatus 
  Enhydrocyon crassidens 
  Enhydrocyon pahinsintewkpa 
  Enhydrocyon stenocephalus 
 Genus Hesperocyon 
  Hesperocyon coloradensis
  Hesperocyon gregarius 
 Genus Mesocyon 
  Mesocyon brachyops 
  Mesocyon coryphaeus
  Mesocyon temnodon
 Genus Osbornodon 
  Osbornodon brachypus
  Osbornodon fricki 
  Osbornodon iamonensis 
  Osbornodon renjiei 
  Osbornodon scitulus
  Osbornodon sesnoni 
  Osbornodon wangi
 Genus Paraenhydrocyon 
  Paraenhydrocyon josephi 
  Paraenhydrocyon robustus 
 Genus Philotrox 
  Philotrox condoni 
 Genus Prohesperocyon   
  Prohesperocyon wilsoni 
 Genus Sunkahetanka 
  Sunkahetanka geringensis
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