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Callicebinae
Masked-titi-monkey-callicebus-personatus-photographed-in-domingos-HRKFDG
Atlantic Titi (Callicebus personatus)
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Primates
Haplorhini
Simiiformes
Family Pitheciidae
Callicebinae

Callicebinae or titis and titi monkeys, is a subfamily of New World monkeys. This subfamily also contains the extinct genera Xenothrix, Antillothrix, Paralouatta, Carlocebus, Lagonimico, and possibly also Tremacebus.

Titis live in South America, from Colombia to Brazil, Bolivia, Peru and northern Paraguay.

Description

Depending on species, titis have a head and body length of 23–46 centimetres (9.1–18.1 in), and a tail, which is longer than the head and body, of 26–56 centimetres (10–22 in). The different titi species vary substantially in coloring, but resemble each other in most other physical ways. They have long, soft fur, and it is usually reddish, brownish, grayish or blackish, and in most species the underside is lighter or more rufescent than the upperside. Some species have contrasting blackish or whitish foreheads, while all members of the genus Cheracebus have a white half-collar. The tail is always furry and is not prehensile.

Biology

Diurnal and arboreal, titis predominantly prefer dense forests near water. They easily jump from branch to branch, earning them their German name, Springaffen (jumping monkeys). They sleep at night, but can also take a midday nap.

Titis are territorial. They live in family groups that consist of parents and their offspring, about two to seven animals in total. They defend their territory by shouting and chasing off intruders, but rarely engage in actual fighting. Their grooming and communication is important for the co-operation of the group. They can typically be seen in pairs sitting or sleeping with tails entwined.

The diet of the titis consists mainly of fruits, although they also eat leaves, flowers, insects, bird eggs and small vertebrates.

Titis are monogamous, mating for life. The female bears a single young after about a five-month gestation. Twins occur rarely, having been documented in only 1.4% of all births in captive groups of Plecturocebus moloch. While the second infant usually does not survive, cases where neighbouring groups have adopted infants are known, suggesting that twins may be reared successfully under certain circumstances. Often it is the father who cares for the young, carrying it and bringing it to the mother only for nursing. The young are weaned after 5 months and are fully grown after two years. After three or more years, they leave their family group in order to find a mate. While the life expectancy of most species is unclear, the members of the genus Cheracebus may live for up to 12 years in the wild, while members of the P. moloch group have been known to live for more than 25 years in captivity.

Classification

The number of known species of titis has doubled in recent years, with four, P. stephennashi, P. bernhardi, P. caquetensis and P. aureipalatii being described from the Amazon basin since 2000. Furthermore, the most recent review uses the phylogenetic species concept (thereby not recognizing the concept of subspecies) rather than the 'traditional' biological species concept. The classification presented here is therefore very different from the classifications used twenty years ago. The naming rights to a recently discovered species were auctioned off (with the funds going to a nonprofit organization), and the winner was the online casino GoldenPalace.com, as reflected in both the common and scientific name of P. aureipalatii. While this typically is a highly unusual event in scientific classification, the possibility of naming a species of titi in exchange for a sizable donation to a nonprofit foundation was also presented a few years before, resulting in P. bernhardi being named after Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands.

Genus: Callicebus
 Barbara Brown's Titi (Hershkovitz, 1990) (Callicebus barbarabrownae)
 Coimbra Filho's Titi (Kobayashi & Langguth, 1999) (Callicebus coimbrai)
 Coastal Black-handed Titi (Wied-Neuwied, 1820) (Callicebus melanochir)
 Black-fronted Titi (Spix, 1823) (Callicebus nigrifrons)
 Atlantic Titi (É. Geoffroy in Humboldt, 1812) (Callicebus personatus)
Genus: Cheracebus
 Lucifer Titi (Thomas, 1914) (Cheracebus lucifer)
 Black Titi (Humboldt, 1811) (Cheracebus lugens)
 Colombian Black-handed Titi (Hershkovitz, 1963) (Cheracebus medemi)
 Rio Purus Titi (Thomas, 1927) (Cheracebus purinus)
 Red-headed Titi (Thomas, 1927) (Cheracebus regulus)
 Collared Titi (Hoffmannsegg, 1807) (Cheracebus torquatus)
Genus: Plecturocebus
 Plecturocebus donacophilus group
  White-eared Titi (D'Orbigny, 1836) (Plecturocebus donacophilus)
  Rio Beni Titi (Lönnberg, 1939) (Plecturocebus modestus)
  Rio Mayo Titi (Thomas, 1924) (Plecturocebus oenanthe)
  Ollala Brothers's Titi (Lönnberg, 1939) (Plecturocebus olallae)
  White-coated Titi (Thomas, 1907) (Plecturocebus pallescens)
 Plecturocebus moloch group
  Madidi Titi (Wallace, Gómez, A. M. Felton, & A. Felton, 2006) (Plecturocebus aureipalatii)
  Baptista Lake Titi (Lönnberg, 1939) (Plecturocebus baptista)
  Prince Bernhard's Titi (van Roosmalen, van Roosmalen and Mittermeier, 2002) (Plecturocebus bernhardi)
  Brown Titi (Wagner, 1842) (Plecturocebus brunneus)
  Chestnut-bellied Titi (Wagner, 1842) (Plecturocebus caligatus)
  Caquetá Titi (Defler, et al., 2010) (Plecturocebus caquetensis)
  Ashy Black Titi (Spix, 1823) (Plecturocebus cinerascens)
  Coppery Titi (Spix, 1823) (Plecturocebus cupreus)
  White-tailed Titi (I. Geoffroy and Deville, 1848) (Plecturocebus discolor)
  Hershkovitz's Titi (Hershkovitz, 1988) (Plecturocebus dubius)
  Alta Floresta Titi (Boubli et al., 2019) (Plecturocebus grovesi)
  Hoffmanns's Titi (Thomas, 1908) (Plecturocebus hoffmannsi)
  Milton's Titi (Dalponte, Silva, Silva Júnior, 2014) (Plecturocebus miltoni)
  Red-bellied Titi (Hoffmannsegg, 1807) (Plecturocebus moloch)
  Ornate Titi (Gray, 1866) (Plecturocebus ornatus)
  Stephen Nash's Titi (van Roosmalen, van Roosmalen and Mittermeier, 2002) (Plecturocebus stephennashi)
  Urubamba Brown Titi (Vermeer & Tello-Alvarado, 2015) (Plecturocebus urubambensis)
  Vieira's Titi (Gualda-Barros, Nascimento & Amaral, 2012) (Plecturocebus vieirai)
Genus: †Xenothrix
 †Jamaican Monkey (Xenothrix mcgregori)
Genus: †Paralouatta (Cuban Monkeys)
 †Paralouatta varonai
 †Paralouatta marianae
Genus: †Antillothrix
 †Hispaniolan Monkey (Antillothrix bernensis)
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