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Bufonidae
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Amphibia
Order Anura
Neobatrachia
Family Bufonidae

Bufonidae or true toads, is a family of frogs in the order Anura. They are the only family of anurans in which all members are known as "toads". The bufonids now comprise more than 35 genera, Bufo being the most widespread and well known.

Characteristics

True toads are widespread and are native to every continent except Australia and Antarctica, inhabiting a variety of environments, from arid areas to rainforest. Most lay eggs in paired strings that hatch into tadpoles, although, in the genus Nectophrynoides, the eggs hatch directly into miniature toads.

True toads are toothless and generally warty in appearance. They have a pair of parotoid glands on the back of their heads. These glands contain an alkaloid poison which the toads excrete when stressed. The poison in the glands contains a number of toxins causing different effects. Bufotoxin is a general term. Different animals contain significantly different substances and proportions of substances. Some, like the cane toad (Bufo marinus), are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads", such as the Colorado River toad (Bufo alvaris), have been used recreationally for the effects of their bufotoxin.

Male toads possess a Bidder's organ. Under the right conditions, the organ becomes an active ovary and the toad, in effect, becomes female.

Genera

The Bufonidae family contains about 500 species among 37 genera.

Adenomus (3 species) (Dwarf Toads)
Altiphrynoides (2 species) (Ethiopian Toads)
Amietophrynus (39 species)
Anaxyrus (22 species)
Andinophryne (3 species) (Andes Toads)
Ansonia (29 species) (Stream Toads)
Atelopus (83 species) (Stubfoot Toads)
Bufo (37 species) (Toads)
Bufoides (Monotypic)
Capensibufo (2 species) (Cape Toads)
Churamiti (Monotypic)
Crepidophryne (3 species) (Cerro Utyum Toads)
Dendrophryniscus (8 species) (Tree Toads)
Didynamipus (Monotypic)
Duttaphrynus (8 species)
Epidalea (Monotypic)
Frostius (2 species) (Frost's Toads)
Ingerophrynus (12 species)
Laurentophryne (Monotypic)
Leptophryne (2 species) (Indonesia Tree Toads)
Melanophryniscus (25 species) (South American Redbelly Toads)
Mertensophryne (14 species) (Snouted Frogs)
Metaphryniscus (Monotypic)
Nectophryne (2 species) (African Tree Toads)
Nectophrynoides (13 species) (African Live-bearing Toads)
Nimbaphrynoides (2 species) (Nimba Toads)
Oreophrynella (8 species) (Bush Toads)
Osornophryne (11 species) (Palump Toads)
Parapelophryne (Monotypic)
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