Group of Impala.jpg
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Artiodactyla
Family Bovidae

Bovidae is a family from the Artiodactyla order. They are cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammal which has males with the characteristic of unbranching horns covered in a permanent sheath of keratin. The family is widespread, being native to Asia, Africa, Europe and North America, and diverse: members include Bison, African buffalo, Water buffalo, Antelopes, Gazelles, Sheep,Goats, Muskoxen, and Domestic cattle.


All bovids have four toes on each foot – they walk on the central two (the hooves), while the outer two (the dew-claws) are much smaller and rarely if ever touch the ground. Apart from some domesticated forms, the males in all species have horns, and in many the females do, too. The size and shape of the horns vary greatly, but the basic structure is always a pair of simple bony protrusions without branches, often having a spiral, twisted or fluted form, each covered in a permanent sheath of keratin. The unique horn structure is the only unambiguous morphological feature of bovids that distinguish them from other pecorans.


Subfamily Bovinae

Tribe Boselaphini
 Genus Tetracerus
  Four-horned Antelope, Tetracerus quadricornis
 Genus Boselaphus
  Nilgai, Boselaphus tragocamelus
Tribe Bovini
 Genus Bubalus
  Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis
   Carabao, Bubalus bubalis carabanesis
   Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis bubalis
  Wild Asian Water Buffalo, Bubalus arnee
  †Short-horned Water Buffalo , Bubalus mephistopheles 
  †Cebu Tamaraw, Bubalus cebuensis 
  Tamaraw, Bubalus mindorensis
  †European Water Buffalo, Bubalus murrensis 
  Lowland Anoa, Bubalus depressicornis
  Mountain Anoa, Bubalus quarlesi
 Genus Bos
  Aurochs†, Bos primigenius 
  Banteng, Bos javanicus
  Gaur, Bos gaurus
  Gayal, Bos frontalis 
  Yak, Bos mutus, Bos grunniens
  Bos palaesondaicus†,
  Domestic Cattle, Bos taurus 
  Domestic Zebu, Bos indicus
  Kouprey, Bos sauveli 
 Genus Pseudoryx
  Saola, Pseudoryx nghetinhensis
 Genus Syncerus
  African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer
 Genus Bison
  American Bison, Bison bison
  European bison, Bison bonasus
   European bison, Bison bonasus bonasus 
   Carpathian Wisent†, Bison bonasus hungarorum 
   Caucasian Wisent†, Bison bonasus caucasicus 
  Steppe Wisent†, Bison priscus 
  Ancient Bison†, Bison antiquus 
  Long-horned Bison†, Bison latifrons 
 Genus Pelorovis† 
Tribe Strepsicerotini
 Genus Tragelaphus 
  Bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus
  Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros
  Kéwel, Tragelaphus scriptus
  Bushbuck, Tragelaphus sylvaticus
  Lesser Kudu, Tragelaphus imberbis
  Mountain Nyala, Tragelaphus buxtoni
  Nyala, Tragelaphus angasii
  Sitatunga, Tragelaphus spekeii
 Genus Taurotragus
  Common Eland, Taurotragus oryx
  Giant Eland, Taurotragus derbianus

Subfamily Cephalophinae

 Genus Cephalophus
  Abbott's Duiker, C. spadix
  Ader's Duiker, C. adersi
  Bay Duiker, C. dorsalis
  Black Duiker, C. niger
  Black-fronted Duiker, C. nigrifrons
  Brooke's Duiker, C. brookei
  Harvey's Duiker, C. harveyi
  Jentink's Duiker, C. jentinki
  Ogilby's Duiker, C. ogilbyi
  Peters's Duiker, C. callipygus
  Red-flanked Duiker, C. rufilatus
  Red Forest Duiker, C. natalensis
  Ruwenzori Duiker, C. rubidis
  Weyns's Duiker, C. weynsi
  White-bellied Duiker, C. leucogaster
  White-legged Duiker, C. crusalbum
  Yellow-backed Duiker, C. silvicultor
  Zebra Duiker, C. zebra
 Genus Philantomba
  Blue Duiker, P. monticola
  Maxwell's Duiker, P. maxwellii
  Walter's Duiker, P. walteri
 Genus Sylvicapra
  Common Duiker, S. grimmia

Subfamily Hippotraginae

 Genus Hippotragus
  Roan Antelope, Hippotragus equinus
  Sable Antelope, Hippotragus niger
   Giant Sable Antelope, Hippotragus niger varani
  Bluebuck, Hippotragus leucophaeus
 Genus Oryx
  East African Oryx, Oryx beisa
  Scimitar Oryx, Oryx dammah
  Gemsbok, Oryx gazella
  Arabian Oryx, Oryx leucoryx
 Genus Addax
  Addax, Addax nasomaculatus

Subfamily Antilopinae

Tribe Antilopini
 Genus Ammodorcas
   Dibatag, Ammodorcas clarkei
 Genus Antidorcas
  Springbok, Antidorcas marsupialis
 Genus Antilope
  Blackbuck, Antilope cervicapra
 Genus Eudorcas
  Mongolian Gazelle, Eudorcas albonotata
  Red Gazelle, Eudorcas rufina †
  Red-fronted Gazelle, Eudorcas rufrifrons
  Thomson's Gazelle, Eudorcas thomsoni
  Heuglin's Gazelle, Eudorcas tilonura
 Genus Gazella
  Subgenus Deprezia
   Gazella psolea †
  Subgenus Gazella
   Arabian Gazelle, Gazella arabica †
   Indian Gazelle, Gazella benettii
   Queen of Sheba's Gazelle, Gazella bilkis †
   Dorcas Gazelle, Gazella dorcas
   Mountain Gazelle, Gazella gazella
   Saudi Gazelle, Gazella saudiya †
   Speke's Gazelle, Gazella spekei
   Japanese Gazelle, Gazella praegaudryi † 
  Subgenus Trachelocele
   Cuvier's Gazelle, Gazella cuvieri
   Rhim Gazelle, Gazella leptoceros
   Goitered Gazelle, Gazella subgutturosa
 Genus Litocranius
  Gerenuk, Litocranius walleri
 Genus Nanger
  Dama Gazelle, Nanger dama
  Grant's Gazelle, Nanger granti
  Soemmerring's Gazelle, Nanger soemmerringii
 Genus Procapra
  Zeren, Procapra gutturosa
  Goa, Procapra picticaudata
  Przewalski's Gazelle, Procapra przewalskii
Tribe Saigini
 Genus Saiga
  Saiga, Saiga tatarica
Tribe Neotragini
 Genus Dorcatragus
  Beira, Dorcatragus megalotis
 Genus Madoqua
  Günther's Dik-Dik, Madoqua guntheri
  Kirk's Dik-Dik, Madoqua kirkii
  Silver Dik-Dik, Madoqua piacentinii
  Salt's Dik-Dik, Madoqua saltiana
 Genus Neotragus
  Bates's Pygmy Antelope, Neotragus batesi
  Suni, Neotragus moschatus
  Royal Antelope, Neotragus pygmaeus
 Genus Oreotragus
  Klipspringer, Oreotragus oreotragus
 Genus Ourebia
  Oribi, Ourebia ourebi
 Genus Raphicerus
  Steenbok, Raphicerus campestris
  Cape Grysbok, Raphicerus melanotis
  Sharpe's Grysbok, Raphicerus sharpei

Subfamily Caprinae

Tribe Ovibovini
 Genus Budorcas
  Takin, Budorcas taxicolor
 Genus Ovibos
  Muskox, Ovibos moschatus
Tribe Caprini
 Genus Ammotragus
  Barbary sheep, Ammotragus lervia
 Genus Arabitragus
  Arabian tahr, Arabitragus jayakari
 Genus Capra
  Wild goat, Capra aegagrus
   Chiltan Ibex, Capra aegagrus chialtanensis
   Domestic goat, Capra aegagrus hircus
  West Caucasian tur, Capra caucasia
  East Caucasian tur, Capra cylindricornis
  Markhor, Capra falconeri
  Alpine Ibex, Capra ibex
  Nubian Ibex, Capra nubiana
  Spanish ibex, Capra pyrenaica
   Southeastern Spanish Ibex, Capra pyrenaica hispanica
  Siberian ibex, Capra sibirica
  Walia ibex, Capra walie
 Genus Hemitragus
  Himalayan tahr, Hemitragus jemlahicus
 Genus Ovis
  Argali, Ovis ammon
  Domestic sheep, Ovis aries
  American Bighorn Sheep, Ovis canadensis
  Dall Sheep, Ovis dalli
  European mouflon, Ovis musimon
  Snow sheep, Ovis nivicola
  Urial, Ovis orientalis
 Genus Nilgiritragus
  Nilgiri tahr, Nilgiritragus hylocrius
 Genus Pseudois
  Bharal (Himalayan blue sheep), Pseudois nayaur
  Dwarf blue sheep, Pseudois schaeferi
Tribe Naemorhedini
 Genus Capricornis
  Japanese serow, Capricornis crispus
  Sumatran serow, Capricornis sumatraensis
  Taiwan serow, Capricornis swinhoei
  Chinese serow, Capricornis milneedwardsii
  Red serow, Capricornis rubidus
  Himalayan serow, Capricornis thar
 Genus Nemorhaedus
  Red goral, Nemorhaedus baileyi
  Chinese goral, Nemorhaedus griseus
  Grey goral, Nemorhaedus goral
  Long-tailed goral, Naemorhedus caudatus
 Genus Oreamnos
  Mountain Goat, Oreamnos americanus
  Harrington's Mountain Goat, Oreamnos harringtoni †  
 Genus Rupicapra
  Pyrenean chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica
  Chamois, Rupicapra rupicapra

Subfamily Reduncinae

 Genus Kobus
  Upemba lechwe, Kobus anselli
  Waterbuck, Kobus ellipsiprymnus
  Kob, Kobus kob
  Roberts' Lechwe, Kobus leche
  Nile lechwe, Kobus megaceros
  Puku, Kobus vardonii
 Genus Redunca
  Southern reedbuck, Redunca arundinum
  Mountain reedbuck, Redunca fulvorufula
  Bohor reedbuck, Redunca redunca

Subfamily Aepycerotinae

 Genus Aepyceros
  Impala, Aepyceros melampus
   A. m. petersi, Black-faced impala
   A. m. melampus

Subfamily Peleinae

 Genus Pelea
  Grey rhebok, Pelea capreolus

Subfamily Alcelaphinae

 Genus Beatragus
  Hirola, Beatragus hunteri
 Genus Damaliscus
  Topi, D. korrigum
   Korrigum, D. k. korrigum
   Topi, D. k. jimela
   Coastal topi, D. k. topi
  Tsessebe, D. lunatus
  Bontebok, D. pygargus
   Bontebok, D. p. pygargus
   Blesbok, D. p. phillipsi
  Bangweulu tsessebe, Damaliscus superstes
 Genus Alcelaphus
  Hartebeest, A. buselaphus
   Bubal hartebeest, †A. b. buselaphus
   Coke's hartebeest, A. b. cokii
   Lelwel hartebeest, A. b. lelwel
   Western hartebeest, A. b. major
   Swayne's hartebeest, A. b. swaynei
   Tora hartebeest, A. b. tora
  Red hartebeest, A. caama
  Lichtenstein's hartebeest, A. lichtensteinii
 Genus Connochaetes
  Black Wildebeest, C. gnou
   †Connochaetes gnou laticornutusConnochaetes gnou antiquus
  Blue Wildebeest, C. taurinus
   Blue wildebeest C. t. taurinus
   Eastern white-bearded wildebeest C. t. albojubatus
   Cookson's wildebeest C. t. cooksoni
   Nyassaland wildebeest C. t. johnstoni
   Western white-bearded wildebeest C. t. mearnsi
   †Connochaetes taurinus olduvaiensisConnochaetes africanusConnochaetes gentryiMegalotragus
  †Megalotragus kattwinkeli
  †Megalotragus priscus
  †Beatragus antiquus
  †Damaliscus niroDamalacra
  †Damalacra acalla
  †Parmularius pachyceras
  †Parmularius ambiquus
  †Parmularius pandatus
  †Parmularius atlanticus
  †Parmularius rugosus
  †Parmularius altidens
  †Parmularius angusticornis
  †Rabaticeras lemutai
  †Damalops palaeindicus
  †Oreonagor tournoueri

Subfamily Pantholopinae

 Genus Pantholops
  Tibetan antelope,Pantholops hodgsonii
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