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The boreal woodland caribou also known as woodland caribouwoodland caribou (boreal group)forest-dwelling caribouRangifer tarandus caribou. Boreal woodland caribou are primarily, but not always, sedentary. The woodland caribou is the largest of the caribou subspecies and is darker in colour than the barren-ground caribou. Valerius Geist, specialist on large North American mammals, described the "true" woodland caribou as ”the uniformly dark, small-manned type with the frontally emphasized, flat-beamed antlers" which is "scattered thinly along the southern rim of North American caribou distribution.” Geist asserts that ”the true woodland caribou is very rare, in very great difficulties and requires the most urgent of attention”, but suggests that this urgency is compromised by the inclusion of the Newfoundland caribou, the Labrador caribou, and the western Osborn’s caribou in the Rangifer tarandus caribou subspecies. In Geist’s opinion, the inclusion of these additional populations obscures the precarious position of the “true” woodland caribou.

The national meta-population of this sedentary boreal ecotype spans the boreal forest from the Northwest Territories to Labrador. They prefer lichen-rich mature forests and mainly live in marshes, bogs, lakes, and river regions. The historic range of the boreal woodland caribou covered over half of present-day Canada, stretching from Alaska to Newfoundland and Labrador and as far south as New England, Idaho, and Washington. Woodland caribou have disappeared from most of their original southern range. The boreal woodland was designated as threatened in 2002 by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). Environment Canada reported in 2011 that there were approximately 34,000 boreal caribou in 51 ranges remaining in Canada.(Environment Canada, 2011b). In a joint report by Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) and the David Suzuki Foundation, on the status of woodland caribou, claim that "the biggest risk to caribou is industrial development, which fragments their habitat and exposes them to greater predation. Scientists consider only 30% (17 of 57) of Canada’s boreal woodland caribou populations to be self-sustaining." "They are extremely sensitive to both natural (such as forest fires) and human disturbance, and to habitat damage and fragmentation brought about by resource exploration, road building, and other human activity. New forest growth following destruction of vegetation provides habitat and food for other ungulates, which in turn attracts more predators, putting pressure on woodland caribou."

Compared to barren-ground caribou or Alaskan caribou, boreal woodland caribou do not form large aggregations and are more dispersed particularly at calving time. Their seasonal movements are not as extensive. Mallory and Hillis explained how, "In North America populations of the woodland caribou subspecies typically form small isolated herds in winter but are relatively sedentary and migrate only short distances (50 - 150 km) during the rest of the year."

The name caribou was probably derived from the Mi'kmaq word xalibu or Qalipu meaning "the one who paws."

According to the then-Canadian Wildlife Service Chief Mammalogist, Frank Banfield, the earliest record of Rangifer tarandus caribou in North America, is from a 1.6 million year old tooth found in the Yukon Territory. Other early records of caribou include a "45,500-year-old cranial fragment from the Yukon and a 40,600-year-old antler from Quebec."

Species and subspecies description

The reindeer species 'Rangifer tarandus', of which Rangifer tarandus caribou is a subspecies, is a medium-sized ungulatewhich inhabits boreal, montane, and arctic environments, and exhibits "tremendous variation in ecology, genetics, behaviour and morphology." Most of the subspecies, Rangifer tarandus caribou are now only found in Canada. A distinctive characteristic of all caribou is large crescent-shaped hooves that change shape with the season and that are adapted to walking in snow-covered and soft ground such as swamps and peat lands, and assist in digging through snow to forage on lichens and other ground vegetation. The subspecies ecotype, boreal woodland caribou, have a shoulder height of approximately 1.0-1.2 m shoulder height and weigh 110–210 kg.

Both male and female boreal caribou have antlers during part of the year, although some females may have only one antler or no antlers at all. On the males these grow so quickly each year that velvety lumps in March can become a rack measuring more than a metre in length by August. Antlers of boreal caribou are flattened, compact, and relatively dense. Boreal caribou antlers are thicker and broader than those of the barren-ground caribou, and their legs and heads are longer.

The boreal woodland Caribou is well-adapted to cold environments with a compact body covered with a thick and long coat (thicker in winter than in summer). They have a large blunt muzzle, short wide ears, and a small tail. Adults have a brown to dark-brown coat in summer, becoming greyer in winter. Adults have distinctive creamy white neck, mane, shoulder stripe, underbelly, underside of the tail, and patch above each hoof.

Reproduction

"Females mature at 16 months, males at 18-20 months, but males usually don't breed before three or four years of age due to the hierarchical nature of the herd and competition between males. Their reproduction rate is low. Breeding occurs at the end of September and the beginning of October and the young are born in mid-June," although these dates may be vary based on geographical region. For conservation and herd management purposes, migratory herds are often defined in terms of female natal philopatry or natal homing - the tendency to return to natal calving areas. Female boreal caribou and their newborn calves are more vulnerable to predation than migratory caribou, as they often calve separate from the rest of the herd and remain solitary until mid-winter.

Taxonomy and current classifications

Current classifications of Rangifer tarandus, either with prevailing taxonomy on subspecies, designations based on ecotypes, and natural population groupings, fail to capture "the variability of caribou across their range in Canada" needed for effective species conservation and management. "Across the range of a species, individuals may display considerable morphological, genetic, and behavioural variability reflective of both plasticity and adaptation to local environments." COSEWIC developed Designated Unit (DU) attribution to add to classifications already in use.

The species taxonomic name Rangifer tarandus (reindeer, caribou, caribou, Reindeer) was defined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. The subspecies taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus caribou was defined by Gmelin in 1788.

Based on Banfield's often-cited A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer (1961), R. t. caboti(LabradorCaribou), R. t. osborni (Osborn's Caribou—from British Columbia) and R. t. terraenovae (Newfoundland Caribou) were considered invalid and included in R. t. caribou.

Some recent authorities have considered them all valid, even suggesting that they are quite distinct. In their book entitled Mammal Species of the World, American zoologist Don E. Wilson and DeeAnn Reeder agree with Valerius Geist, specialist on large North American mammals, that this range actually includes several subspecies.

In 2005, an analysis of mtDNA found differences between the caribou from Newfoundland, Labrador, south-western Canada and south-eastern Canada, but maintained all in R. t caribou.

Mallory and Hillis argued that, "Although the taxonomic designations reflect evolutionary events, they do not appear to reflect current ecological conditions. In numerous instances, populations of the same subspecies have evolved different demographic and behavioural adaptations, while populations from separate subspecies have evolved similar demographic and behavioural patterns... "[U]nderstanding ecotype in relation to existing ecological constraints and releases may be more important than the taxonomic relationships between populations."

Subspecies and ecotypes

The woodland caribou (R.t. Caribou), is one of four extant subspecies of Rangifer tarandus identified by Banfield (1961), an experienced field scientist with the Canadian Wildlife Service.

Others claim that "taxonomically, woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are one of seven extant subspecies that occur within Eurasia and North America."

Ecotypes

Caribou herds are classified by ecotype depending on several behavioural factors - predominant habitat use (northern, tundra, mountain, forest, boreal forest, forest-dwelling), spacing (dispersed or aggregated) and migration (sedentary or migratory). Caribou herds can be classified as a northern mountain woodland ecotype.

In eastern North America caribou are classified into three ecotypes – "the mountain caribou which is found south of the St. Lawrence River, the barren-ground caribou which calves in the tundra, and in between, the forest-dwelling ecotype which lives all year long in the boreal forest. In west-central Alberta there are two ecotypes – boreal and mountain. In Québec there are three ecotypes with specific habitats and behaviour – migratory barren-ground ecotype, the mountain ecotype and the forest-dwelling ecotype (boreal caribou). In British Columbia caribou are classified into three ecotypes – Mountain, Northern, and Boreal. In Ontario caribou are classified into two ecotypes – forest-dwelling woodland caribou and forest-tundra woodland. In Newfoundland/Labrador, Woodland caribou are classified as part of the boreal population of caribou, which is sub-divided into two ecotypes: the migratory forest-tundra and the sedentary forest-dwelling ecotype. In the Northwest Territories, the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society identified five types of caribou – boreal woodland caribou, northern mountain woodland caribou, barren-ground caribou and Peary caribou and Dolphin-Union. "The Boreal woodland caribou live in the forests east of the Mackenzie Mountains and tend to live in small groups. They prefer to stay within the forest for most of the year and do not migrate."

Range and population changes

In 2012 Environment Canada identified 51 Rangifer tarandus caribou (boreal caribou) or boreal ecotype of forest-dwelling woodland caribou ranges in Canada.

The northernmost range of boreal woodland caribou in Canada is in the Mackenzie River Delta area, Northwest Territories. In 2000, in the Northwest Territories, woodland caribou had a very large range and the population was assessed and was not considered to be risk in 2000. The population is identified as NT1 for conservation purposes.

Woodland caribou in the Northwest Territories

The Species at Risk Committee's (SARC) assessed the biological status of the boreal caribou Rangifer tarandus tarandus in NWT as threatened, in their completed assessment and status report dated December 5, 2012, submitted in compliance with the Species at Risk (NWT) Act.

Based on this 2012 SARC report, the NWT Conference of Management Authorities (CMA) undertook further studies and in October 2013, reached a consensus to add boreal caribou to the Northwest Territories List of Species at Risk as a threatened species.

Management authorities include NWT Conference of Management Authorities (CMA) for boreal caribou are the Government of the NWT, the Tłįchǫ Government, the Wildlife Management Advisory Council (NWT), the Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board, the Sahtu Renewable Resources Board, and the Wek'eezhii Renewable Resources Board.

There is a stable population of woodland caribou throughout a large portion of the Gwich’in Settlement Area and are an important food source for Gwich’in although they harvest them less than other caribou. Gwich’in living in Inuvik, Aklavik, Fort McPherson, and Tsiigehtchic harvest woodland caribou but not as much as other caribou. The Gwich'in prefer to hunt Porcupine caribou or the barren-ground Blue Nose herd, who travel in large herds, when they are available. Many hunters claimed that woodland caribou that form very small groups, are wilder, both hard to see and hard to hunt. They are very smart, cunning and elusive. However, at times due to their natural curiosity, they may freeze, standing as if they were trying to hide unlike the Porcupine of Bluenose caribou that will outrun a hunter.

Woodland Caribou in British Columbia

In British Columbia woodland caribou are classified into three ecotypes – mountain, northern, and boreal. The boreal woodland caribou is now only found in "the lowlands of the Boreal Plains and Taiga Plains ecoprovinces of the Alberta Plateau physiographic region, in the northeastern corner." This population was in an area with a high density of wolves and there was concern that the caribou herd was not self-sustaining.

Density and population of boreal caribou in BC was not well known prior to 2000. In British Columbia the conservation status of caribou "is important from both federal and provincial perspectives because declining populations have been recognized globally (Vors and Boyce 2009), nationally (Sleep 2007), and provincially (Wittmer et al. 2005)." Following a 2006 survey of boreal caribou populations in 2006, they were blue-listed within British Columbia.

The fifteen northern caribou herds of the Southern Mountains National Ecological Area (SMNEA) are federally listed as "threatened" by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC). The sixteen northern caribou herds of the Northern Mountains Ecological Area (NMNEA) are listed as of "special concern" federally. This includes the Pink Mountain Herd which is locally, provincially and federally of concern.In 1996 there were 1,300 animals. The population declined from 1,300 in 1996 to 850 animals in 2002 and continued to decline.

The name of the Cariboo district of central British Columbia relates to their once-large numbers there, but they have almost vanished from that area in the last century. There are a number of populations in BC that are currently being monitored. – In 2006 there were approximately 200 to 340 individual boreal caribou in the BC1 Maxhamish DU, north of Fort Nelson.,  BC2 Calendar, The BC3 Snake-Sahtahneh boreal caribou are non-migratory. In BC4 Parker DU, there was a small local population of 20 individuals in 2006.

Woodland Caribou in Alberta

There are sixteen woodland caribou herds in Alberta and their ranges are all on Crown land. In west-central Alberta there are two ecotypes – boreal and mountain. "Seven of the ten most-at-risk herds are in Alberta and are generally well-known to be under severe threat." There are 12 designated units for conservation purposes including the most-at-risk herds, AB2 Bistcho, Little Smoky, a small isolated local population at risk of extirpation, AB1 Chinchaga in Alberta and British Columbia, AB8 Richardson, AB6 Red Earth, AB11 Nipisi, a small local population, and AB7 West Side Athabasca River. The remaining herds are AB3 Yates, AB4 Caribou Mountains, AB9 East Side Athabasca River, AB10 Cold Lake and AB12 Slave Lake (small local population). In Alberta, a herd is protected in the Caribou Mountains Wildland Park in Alberta. The Redrock-Prairie Creek (RPC) herd, located north of Jasper, in northwestern Alberta is also endangered. Land use practices in their range includes "timber harvesting, extensive oil and gas exploration and production, coal mining, roads, recreational off-road vehicle use, recreational hunting, and commercial trapping."

The AB5 Little Smoky Herd "is the most critically disturbed boreal caribou habitat in the country" with "only five per cent of intact forest left in the Little Smoky Range." By 2012 there were only 80 animals left in this herd. Since 2005 the Alberta government has been culling wolves, up to a hundred a year.

By November 2014 it was apparent that the recovery plan adopted by the Alberta government had not been implemented as development expanded in the oil sands. However Carolyn Campbell, a conservation specialist with the Alberta Wilderness Association in a radio interview was hopeful that the new Premier of Alberta Jim Prentice would work towards a new recovery plan. Campbell described the caribou as an "umbrella species." Caribou are leading indicators of old growth forest core areas. By protecting their ecosystem, water quality is protected and other native fish and bird species also benefit. Dave Hervieux, Alberta's caribou specialist, confirmed the 2013 report findings that "woodland caribou are declining rapidly across Alberta." "The report suggests the population viability of caribou is compromised and supports recovery-based actions to reverse the trend."

Canadian Press correspondent Bob Weber revealed in March 2015 that the government of Alberta had planned to sell energy leases on 21,000 hectares in the habitat in northwestern Alberta of the endangered Redrock-Prairie Creek boreal woodland caribou herd which both the Alberta provincial government and the Canadian federal government had promised to protect. However, on 5 March the government announced it would postpone the oil and gas lease auction in this endangered caribou range.

Saskatchewan

In Saskatchewan the boreal woodland caribou are in what is called the SK1 Boreal Shield, an area with very low anthropogenic disturbance but very high fire disturbance.

Manitoba

In Manitoba there are several small populations including the MB1 The Bog is a small local population), MB2 Kississing (small local population), MB3 Naosap, MB4 Reed, MB5 North Interlake (small local population), MB6 William Lake (small local population), MB7 Wabowden, MB8 Wapisu, MB9 Manitoba North, MB10 Manitoba South, MB11 Manitoba East, MB12 Atikaki-Berens and MB13 Owl-Flinstone a small local population.

Woodland Caribou in Ontario

In their Annual Report 2006-2007, the Office of the Environmental Commissioner of Ontario argued that, "Woodland caribou represent the "hard-to-perceive, slow-motion crisis" that faces many species at risk." "Woodland caribou are a sensitive indicator of the ecological effects of development in northern Ontario. The success or failure of conservation efforts for this species also may serve as a benchmark to measure the sustainability of policy choices made by the Ontario government."

Since the 1940s the decline of Rangifer tarandus caribou range occupancy in Ontario has been recognized. There are two populations of woodland caribou, the forest-tundra ecotype and the sedentary forest-dwelling ecotype. The boreal woodland caribou population (forest-dwelling), estimated at approximately 3,000, make up approximately one-quarter of Ontario’s woodland caribou, was designated as threatened in 2000 (likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed) by the Federal Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada and by the Province of Ontario. The migratory forest-tundra woodland caribou, numbering about 20,000 in 2007 is found in northern Ontario, on the coastal plains south of Hudson Bay was not considered to be endangered.

In 1985, the Ontario government established the Slate Islands in Lake Superior as a natural environment provincial park. The islands are notable for having Ontario's largest herd of woodland caribou. Slate Island, where there were no wolves or other predators, had the highest density of boreal caribou in the world with a population peaking at 660. Because of a food shortage in 1990, their numbers were reduced to less than 100.

There are six designated units in Ontario – ON1 Sydney, ON2 Berens, ON3 Churchill, ON4 Brightsand, ON5 Nipigon, ON6 Coastal (small isolated local population), ON7 Pagwachuan, ON8 Kesagami, ON9 Far North (very large range).

Québec: QC1 Val d'Or (small isolated local population), QC2 Charlevoix (small isolated local population), QC3 Pipmuacan, QC4 Manouane, QC5 Manicouagan, QC6 Quebec (very large range).

Woodland Caribou in Newfoundland and Labrador

In insular Newfoundland, in Gros Morne National Park, for example, Woodland caribou R.t. caribou are "usually seen on the Long Range traverse and sometimes on Gros Morne Mountain. In recent winters, they have been seen in large numbers on the coastal lowlands north of Berry Hill and St. Paul's." An adult male R.t. caribou can weigh up to 270 kilograms (600 lb), and females are about a quarter smaller. The caribou is much smaller than moose.

According to Bergerud in the 1800s and early 1900s, (Rangifer tarandus) caribou numbers declined following settlement. The decline continued along the southern edge of woodland caribou distribution throughout the 1960s, 70s and 80s with the direct loss of habitat to logging, mines and dams. The increase of roads intersecting the led to increased hunting and poaching and increased predator/prey densities.

According to the Canadian Wildlife Federation in Canada, "Despite its vast range, the boreal population of woodland caribou [boreal ecotype of forest-dwelling woodland caribou] has been listed as threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) since 2002 and endangered in British Columbia. One of the main reasons numbers are dropping is that fewer calves are surviving their first year of life. The main cause is predation. More calves are being preyed on by wolves and black bears than ever before."

Western North America

In 1991 Edmonds identified 44 herds of Woodland Caribou in seven jurisdictions in western North America (west of Ontario/Manitoba border) with an estimated total maximum population of 61,090 caribou. She noted that by 1991 caribou was a threatened species in Alberta and an endangered species in Washington/Idaho.

Woodland Caribou in Quebec

Subspecies and ecotypes

All Caribou of the province of Québec were assigned to the same sub-species (R. t. caribou) in 1961. Banfield classified the caribou of Ungava as woodland caribou Rangifer tarandus caribou based on skull measurements. But there are three ecotypes with specific habitats and behaviour. Bergerud et al. compared the sedentary ecotype caribou (Bergerud 1988b) in southern Ungava (south of 55°N) to those farther north, the migratory ecotype Leaf River Caribou Herd (LRH) and the George River Caribou Herd (GRCH). In southern Ungava caribou females disperse from other females to avoid predators.

The boreal woodland caribou (forest-dwelling) ecotype is found discontinuously, mainly between the 49th and 55th parallels. In 2003 its distribution covered 235 000 km2, mainly east of the 72nd meridian. This sedentary ecotype is found almost exclusively in the boreal forest, principally in areas with long forest fire cycles. Its abundance has also decreased over the years. Large forest-dwelling populations still persisted during the 1950s and 1960s, but they apparently disappeared. The current abundance is not known precisely, but based on density estimates and considering the current distribution, it probably does not exceed 3000 individuals. Current data are insufficient to identify precisely the causes of the population decline, although hunting seems to be an important proximal cause." 

Although they are included as woodland caribou, the George River and Leaf River caribou herds are migratory, covering thousands of miles each year to and from their birthing grounds. They travel north and south of their birthing grounds near these rivers crossing from Nunavik in the Ungava region to Quebec and insular Newfoundland.

The George River caribou herd (GRCH)

The George River caribou herd (GRCH) is a migratory forest-tundra ecotype of the boreal woodland caribou. "Since the mid-1990s, the George River Herd has declined sharply. A recent survey confirms a continuing decline of the George River migratory caribou herd population over the past few years; currently (2012), it is estimated to be about 27,600 animals, down from 385,000 in 2001 and 74,131 in 2010."

The Leaf River caribou herd

The Leaf River caribou herd (LRCH), is a migratory forest-tundra ecotype of the boreal woodland caribou. The Leaf Herd in the west, near the coast of Hudson Bay, increased from 270 000 individuals in 1991 to 628 000 in 2001. According to the Quebec's Natural Resources and Wildlife survey, the Leaf River Herd (LRH) (Rivière-aux-Feuilles) had decreased to 430 000 caribou in 2011. According to an international study on caribou populations, the Leaf River herd and other herds that migrate from Nunavik, Quebec and insular Newfoundland, could be threatened with extinction by 2080.

Woodland Caribou in the United States

The southern end of the Selkirk Mountains is home to the only extant woodland caribou population in the contiguous United States. In the United States the woodland caribou is one of the most critically endangered mammals, with only a few woodland caribou found south of the Canada border each year. In the US there is only one naturally occurring herd of woodland caribou in extreme northern Idaho, eastern Washington, and British Columbia, Canada, of about 40 animals. There is, however, a concerted effort on the part of the North Central Caribou Corporation and the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness to reintroduce a herd of around 75 animals from the Slate Islands in Lake Superior to northern Minnesota. However, the high incidence of whitetail deer and wolves in the region will likely prove quite problematic.

In his article entitled "Woodland Caribou: A Conservation Dilemma", Idaho Department of Fish and Game biologist Peter Zager described how the range of the woodland caribou had dramatically declined.

Wolf predation

There is also a small population of Woodland caribou in Pukaskwa National Parks but their numbers declined from 30 caribou in the 1970s to about four in 2012 mainly due to wolf predation.

Habitat loss and degradation

Woodland caribou were once found throughout much of Ontario's boreal forest; at the turn of the 20th century they ranged as far south as northern Wisconsin. The last permanent residents were killed in Minnesota in 1962. Despite periodic sightings of individuals south of the border the caribou range has receded approximately 34 km/decade, the manifestation of widespread range collapse and population decline. Although woodland caribou have been protected from sport hunting since 1929, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada listed forest-dwelling caribou in Canada as threatened (likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed) in 2000. Woodland caribou may be extinct before the year 2100 if the rate of range loss continues. "Destruction of habitat, hunting and disturbances by humans during the construction of roads and pipelines are all factors that have contributed to the decline of Woodland Caribou."

Cumulative effects of development

When Environment Canada (EC) introduced the new South Athabaska Sub-regional Strategic Environmental Assessment, it was partly in response to the cumulative effect of oil sands development on the habitat loss of the boreal caribou also known as Woodland Caribou(boreal), Rangifer tarandus caribou. The caribou is iconic and the caribou design on the Royal Canadian Mint quarter was first used in 1937. Ecosystem degradation of the "stands of old growth forest", for example, are caused by "mining, logging, oil and gas exploration and even excessive motorized recreation" which result in "a fragmented and altered landscape often leading to increased populations of deer, moose, elk, and their predators. Caribou require large areas of land with low densities of predators."The cumulative effect of oil sands development, was one of the topics discussed.

Since the fall of 2010, the Alberta government has been working closely with the federal government, through Major Projects Management Office (MPMO) on system-wide improvements in regulatory activities to align with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) and to engage Alberta on energy and environment issues.

On 3 February 2013, a joint Canada-Alberta world-class, comprehensive and integrated monitoring system of the oil sands was announced. Through the South Athabaska Sub-regional Strategic Environmental Assessment, the Government of Canada and Alberta will "further align regulatory processes, while addressing cumulative effects by employing an ecosystem-based approach."

On 11 May 2012, the briefing notes for the meeting with Suncor VP and Environment Canada included EC's concerns for the cumulative effects of oil sands development.

By February 2013, Suncor's March report reflects their concerns with the Species at Risk Act (SARA), in particular on the implications of theProposed Recovery Strategy for Woodland Caribou.

Technology

Caribou are monitored through a capture and collaring with VHF or Global Positioning System (GPS) collars tracking collars. Satellite tracking Argos system, a satellite-based system collects, processes and disseminates the data from caribou tracking collars, clearly locating exact geographically coordinates. Satellite networks have tracked the migration and territorial movements of caribou. Electronic tags are giving scientists a complete, accurate picture of migration patterns. Using radio transmitters to track one herd of caribou, scientists learned that the herd moves much more than previously thought and they learned that each year the herd returns to about the same place to give birth. Environment Canada uses Landsat satellite imagery, for example, to identify anthropogenic disturbance (human-caused disturbance) to the natural landscape. This includes roads, seismic lines, pipe lines, well sites, and cutblocks that accompany industrial activities such as oil and gas exploration and development and forestry. British Columbia uses telemetry and computer modelling.

Comparison with other global populations

Experts in Finland are also concerned about their R. tarandus subspecies, R. t. fennicus or Finnish forest reindeer, where an increasing, returning wolf population may be partially responsible for slowing the recovery.

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