Common Pronghorn
Two Common Pronghorn
Scientific Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Artiodactyla
Family Antilocapridae

The Antilocapridae are a family of artiodactyls endemic to North America. Their closest extant relatives are the giraffids with which they comprise the superfamily Giraffoidea. Only one species, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), is living today; all other members of the family are extinct. The living pronghorn is a small ruminant mammal resembling an antelope. It bears small, forked horns.

In most respects, antilocaprids resemble other ruminants. They have a complex, four-chambered stomach for digesting tough plant matter, cloven hooves, and a similar body shape to antelopes. Their horns resemble those of the bovids, in that they have a true horny sheath, but, uniquely, they are shed outside of the breeding season, and subsequently regrown. Their lateral toes are even further diminished than in bovids, with the digits themselves being entirely lost, and only the cannon bones remaining.


The antilocaprids evolved in North America, where they filled a niche similar to that of the bovids that evolved in the Old World. During the Miocene and Pliocene, they were a diverse and successful group, with many different species. Some had horns with bizarre shapes, or had four, or even six, horns. Examples include Osbornoceros, with smooth, slightly curved horns, Paracosoryx, with flattened horns that widened to forked tips, Ramoceros, with fan-shaped horns, and Hayoceros, with four horns.


Subfamily Antilocaprinae

Tribe Antilocaprini
 Genus Antilocapra
  Antilocapra americana - Pronghorn
   A. a. americana - Common Pronghorn
   A. a. mexicana - Mexican Pronghorn
   A. a. peninsularis - Baja California Pronghorn
   A. a. sonoriensis - Sonoran Pronghorn
   A. a. oregona - Oregon Pronghorn
  †Antilocapra maquinensis
  †Antilocapra pacifica
 Genus †Texoceros
  Texoceros altidens
  Texoceros edensis
  Texoceros guymonensis
  Texoceros minorei
  Texoceros texanus
  Texoceros vaughani
Tribe †Ilingoceratini
 Genus †Ilingoceros
  Ilingoceros alexandrae
  Ilingoceros schizoceros
 Genus †Ottoceros
  Ottoceros peacevalleyensis
 Genus †Plioceros
  Plioceros blicki
  Plioceros dehlini
  Plioceros floblairi
 Genus †Sphenophalos
  Sphenophalos garciae
  Sphenophalos middleswarti
  Sphenophalos nevadanus
Tribe †Proantilocaprini
 Genus †Proantilocapra
  Proantilocapra platycornea
 Genus †Osbornoceros
  Osbornoceros osborni
Tribe Stockoceratini
 Genus †Capromeryx - (junior synonym Breameryx)
  Capromeryx arizonensis - (junior synonym B. arizonensis)
  Capromeryx furcifer - (junior synonyms B. minimus, C. minimus)
  Capromeryx gidleyi - (junior synonym B. gidleyi)
  Capromeryx mexicana - (junior synonym B. mexicana)
  Capromeryx minor - (junior synonym B. minor)
  Capromeryx tauntonensis
 Genus †Ceratomeryx
  Ceratomeryx prenticei
 Genus †Hayoceros
  Hayoceros barbouri
  Hayoceros falkenbachi
 Genus †Hexameryx
  Hexameryx simpsoni
 Genus †Hexobelomeryx
  Hexobelomeryx fricki
  Hexobelomeryx simpsoni
 Genus †Stockoceros
  Stockoceros conklingi
 Genus †Tetrameryx
  Tetrameryx irvingtonensis
  Tetrameryx knoxensis
  Tetrameryx mooseri
  Tetrameryx shuleri
  Tetrameryx tacubayensis

Subfamily Merycodontinae

 Genus †Cosoryx
  Cosoryx agilis
  Cosoryx cerroensis
  Cosoryx furcatus
  Cosoryx ilfonensis
  Cosoryx trilateralis
 Genus †Meryceros
  Meryceros crucensis
  Merycerus crucianus
  Meryceros hookwayi
  Meryceros joraki
  Meryceros major
  Meryceros nenzelensis
  Meryceros warreni
 Genus †Merycodus
  Merycodus furcatus
  Merycodus grandis
  Merycodus necatus
  Merycodus prodromus
  Merycodus sabulonis
 Genus †Paracosoryx
  Paracosoryx alticornis
  Paracosoryx burgensis
  Paracosoryx dawesensis
  Paracosoryx furlongi
  Paracosoryx loxoceros
  Paracosoryx nevadensis
  Paracosoryx wilsoni
 Genus †Ramoceros
  Ramoceros brevicornis
  Ramoceros coronatus
  Ramoceros marthae
  Ramoceros merriami
  Ramoceros osborni
  Ramoceros palmatus
  Ramoceros ramosus
 Genus †Submeryceros
  Submeryceros crucianus
  Submeryceros minimus
  Submeryceros minor


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